Parikh K.S.,Integrated Research and Action for Development IRADe |
Parikh J.K.,Integrated Research and Action for Development IRADe
Energy Policy | Year: 2016
The paper projects households' stock of four major electricity consuming appliances till 2030 and explores policy options to accelerate adoption of more energy efficient appliances. India's rapid economic growth has enabled the growing middle class to buy household appliances in increasing numbers. The consequent rise in energy consumption and GHG emissions can be significantly reduced if consumers are motivated by awareness and options in the market to buy energy efficient appliances. India has introduced a star rating scheme for appliances, and even without incentives consumers purchase star-rated appliances. The stock of household appliances is projected using the data of a national sample survey of household consumption, observed sale of star-rated appliances and projected consumption distribution. Estimated savings in households' electricity consumption from just four appliances, ACs, refrigerators, TVs, and ceiling fans, for which data were available, range from 52 bKwh to 145 bkwh in 2030, reductions of 10–27%. The corresponding reduction in CO2 emissions will be between 42 Mt and 116 Mt in 2030. With policies of finance and bulk procurement to reduce costs, emissions reduction can be 128 Mt in 2030, a reduction of 30%. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd
Parikh K.,Integrated Research and Action for Development IRADe
Energy | Year: 2012
For India, sustainable strategy means one that is economically, environmentally and socially sustainable. This calls for rapid economic growth to deal with poverty and human development. However, the relatively meagre energy resources of the country pose a huge challenge. At the same time concern for climate change has raised the bar on the use of the one energy resource that India has in some abundance, namely coal. India's strategy for sustainable development has to explore all options of reducing energy needs, enhancing efficiency of use of conventional energy resources and develop new and renewable sources. The paper identifies various technical options, their potential roles and alternative policy measures to realize them in a cost effective manner. Even for the same objectives different policy instruments are available and how one chooses a particular instrument is often critical for the success. Self-implementing incentive compatible policy that does not create vested interests that would get entrenched should be preferred. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Parikh J.,Integrated Research and Action for Development IRADe
Energy Policy | Year: 2011
This paper explores the inter-linkages of gender, energy use, health and hardships in the Himalayan State of Himachal Pradesh in India. It brings out a gender-differentiated and age-differentiated picture of hardships and health impact on the use of traditional biofuels. The study is based on survey with questionnaires covering 4296 individuals, 729 households, 84 villages and 9 districts where biomass fuels meet 70% of household fuel needs. On an average, women walk 30. km each month taking 2.7. h per trip for fuel wood collection over hilly terrain, often at high altitudes and undergo stress like stiff-neck, backache, headache and loss of work days. Girls below 5 and females in 30-60 age-groups have higher proportion of respiratory symptoms than males of similar age-groups. While many studies are done on the health impact of cooking fuels, very little quantitative work is done on the other aspects of the fuel chain viz. collection, transportation and processing of fuels. Such studies would guide energy policy and health policy to improve the lives of women. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
Parikh J.,Integrated Research and Action for Development IRADe |
Parikh K.,Integrated Research and Action for Development IRADe
Energy | Year: 2011
India's aspiration for economic growth has consequences for energy growth and CO 2 emissions. This paper examines India's need for energy with 20 year perspectives. From an earlier paper by K. Parikh et al. (2009), demand scenario are examined from the supply perspectives ranging from coal, hydrocarbon, nuclear, hydrogen, hydro and other renewable etc. None of these are substantial and India will have to rely on imports. The need for energy has to be reduced by a drive for energy efficiency and renewable energy. Government programmes for the above are also commented upon. Though India's CO 2 emissions are unlikely to grow very much due to energy scarcity and energy mix the article examines the potential to reduce CO 2 emissions and the associated costs involved in various options. It finds that 30% reduction in CO 2 emissions by 2030 is feasible but would involve additional costs. The most promising option is to reduce energy demand by various measures to increase energy use efficiency in production and consumption. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
Parikh K.S.,Integrated Research and Action for Development IRADe
Oxford Review of Economic Policy | Year: 2014
This paper critically examines the feasibility and desirability of green growth in India. Currently, its environment is being plundered at all levels, local, national, and global. The stresses that result raise the fundamental question of whether the aspirations of Indians for greater material comfort can ever be fulfilled. The current 5-year plan aims for 'Faster and More Inclusive Sustainable Growth' but it is clear that the emphasis of the Plan is mostly on growth and inclusion, rather than sustainability. A modelling exercise reported here suggests that a 'visionary development' growth scenario with major social and environmental benefits is possible for India at low cost. However, combining that scenario with a low-carbon growth trajectory consistent with international aspirations to limit climate change would be significantly more expensive. As it is not clear that the Indian people would be willing to bear these extra costs, some combination of accelerated low-carbon innovation, technology transfer from developed countries, and climate finance from outside the country will be needed if green growth is to take root in India. © The Authors 2015.