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Smith D.R.,Integrated Plasmonics
Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics | Year: 2010

Electromagnetic metamaterials are artificially structured media typically composed of arrays of resonant electromagnetic circuits, the dimension and spacing of which are considerably smaller than the free-space wavelengths of operation. The constitutive parameters for metamaterials, which can be obtained using full-wave simulations in conjunction with numerical retrieval algorithms, exhibit artifacts related to the finite size of the metamaterial cell relative to the wavelength. Liu showed that the complicated, frequency-dependent forms of the constitutive parameters can be described by a set of relatively simple analytical expressions. These expressions provide useful insight and can serve as the basis for more intelligent interpolation or optimization schemes. Here, we show that the same analytical expressions can be obtained using a transfer-matrix formalism applied to a one-dimensional periodic array of thin, resonant, dielectric, or magnetic sheets. The transfer-matrix formalism breaks down, however, when both electric and magnetic responses are present in the same unit cell, as it neglects the magnetoelectric coupling between unit cells. We show that an alternative analytical approach based on the same physical model must be applied for such structures. Furthermore, in addition to the intercell coupling, electric and magnetic resonators within a unit cell may also exhibit magnetoelectric coupling. For such cells, we find an analytical expression for the effective index, which displays markedly characteristic dispersion features that depend on the strength of the coupling coefficient. We illustrate the applicability of the derived expressions by comparing to full-wave simulations on magnetoelectric unit cells. We conclude that the design of metamaterials with tailored simultaneous electric and magnetic response-such as negative index materials-will generally be complicated by potentially unwanted magnetoelectric coupling. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

Urzhumov Y.A.,Integrated Plasmonics | Smith D.R.,Integrated Plasmonics
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2011

We introduce a new concept for the manipulation of fluid flow around three-dimensional bodies. Inspired by transformation optics, the concept is based on a mathematical idea of coordinate transformations and physically implemented with anisotropic porous media permeable to the flow of fluids. In two situations-for an impermeable object placed either in a free-flowing fluid or in a fluid-filled porous medium-we show that the object can be coated with an inhomogeneous, anisotropic permeable medium, such as to preserve the flow that would have existed in the absence of the object. The proposed fluid flow cloak eliminates downstream wake and compensates viscous drag, hinting at the possibility of novel propulsion techniques. © 2011 American Physical Society.

Rose A.,Integrated Plasmonics | Smith D.R.,Integrated Plasmonics
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2011

The ability to tune the quasi-phase-matching (QPM) frequency is a highly desirable though lacking feature of many nonlinear devices. To this end, we consider QPM in a special class of active nonlinear metamaterials (MMs), whose properties can be controlled postfabrication. By application of a tunable, periodic perturbation in the linear susceptibility (magnetic or electric) of a MM, a single nonlinear device can be constructed to operate over an exceedingly broad bandwidth. We propose a nonlinear MM for QPM second-order harmonic generation at terahertz frequencies, predicted to have a tunable bandwidth of over 100%. © 2011 American Physical Society.

Larouche S.,Integrated Plasmonics | Smith D.R.,Integrated Plasmonics
Optics Letters | Year: 2012

When an electromagnetic wave is obliquely incident on the interface between two homogeneous media with different refractive indices, the requirement of phase continuity across the interface generally leads to a shift in the trajectory of the wave. When a linearly position-dependent phase shift is imposed at the interface, the resulting refraction may be described using a generalized version of Snell's law. In this Letter, we establish a formal equivalence between generalized refraction and blazed diffraction gratings, further discussing the relative merits of the two approaches. © 2012 Optical Society of America.

Urzhumov Y.,Integrated Plasmonics | Smith D.R.,Integrated Plasmonics
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2011

Nonradiative coupling between conductive coils is a candidate mechanism for wireless energy transfer applications. In this paper we propose a power relay system based on a near-field metamaterial superlens and present a thorough theoretical analysis of this system. We use time-harmonic circuit formalism to describe all interactions between two coils attached to external circuits and a slab of anisotropic medium with homogeneous permittivity and permeability. The fields of the coils are found in the point-dipole approximation using Sommerfeld integrals which are reduced to standard special functions in the long-wavelength limit. We show that, even with a realistic magnetic loss tangent of order 0.1, the power transfer efficiency with the slab can be an order of magnitude greater than free-space efficiency when the load resistance exceeds a certain threshold value. We also find that the volume occupied by the metamaterial between the coils can be greatly compressed by employing magnetic permeability with a large anisotropy ratio. © 2011 American Physical Society.

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