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Larouche S.,Integrated Plasmonics | Smith D.R.,Integrated Plasmonics
Optics Letters | Year: 2012

When an electromagnetic wave is obliquely incident on the interface between two homogeneous media with different refractive indices, the requirement of phase continuity across the interface generally leads to a shift in the trajectory of the wave. When a linearly position-dependent phase shift is imposed at the interface, the resulting refraction may be described using a generalized version of Snell's law. In this Letter, we establish a formal equivalence between generalized refraction and blazed diffraction gratings, further discussing the relative merits of the two approaches. © 2012 Optical Society of America.


Kundtz N.,Integrated Plasmonics | Smith D.R.,Integrated Plasmonics
Nature Materials | Year: 2010

For centuries, the conventional approach to lens design has been to grind the surfaces of a uniform material in such a manner as to sculpt the paths that rays of light follow as they transit through the interfaces. Refractive lenses formed by this procedure of bending the surfaces can be of extremely high quality, but are nevertheless limited by geometrical and wave aberrations that are inherent to the manner in which light refracts at the interface between two materials. Conceptually, a more naturalbut usually less convenientapproach to lens design would be to vary the refractive index throughout an entire volume of space. In this manner, far greater control can be achieved over the ray trajectories. Here, we demonstrate how powerful emerging techniques in the field of transformation optics can be used to harness the flexibility of gradient index materials for imaging applications. In particular we design and experimentally demonstrate a lens that is broadband (more than a full decade bandwidth), has a field-of-view approaching 180° and zero f-number. Measurements on a metamaterial implementation of the lens illustrate the practicality of transformation optics to achieve a new class of optical devices. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.


Smith D.R.,Integrated Plasmonics
Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics | Year: 2010

Electromagnetic metamaterials are artificially structured media typically composed of arrays of resonant electromagnetic circuits, the dimension and spacing of which are considerably smaller than the free-space wavelengths of operation. The constitutive parameters for metamaterials, which can be obtained using full-wave simulations in conjunction with numerical retrieval algorithms, exhibit artifacts related to the finite size of the metamaterial cell relative to the wavelength. Liu showed that the complicated, frequency-dependent forms of the constitutive parameters can be described by a set of relatively simple analytical expressions. These expressions provide useful insight and can serve as the basis for more intelligent interpolation or optimization schemes. Here, we show that the same analytical expressions can be obtained using a transfer-matrix formalism applied to a one-dimensional periodic array of thin, resonant, dielectric, or magnetic sheets. The transfer-matrix formalism breaks down, however, when both electric and magnetic responses are present in the same unit cell, as it neglects the magnetoelectric coupling between unit cells. We show that an alternative analytical approach based on the same physical model must be applied for such structures. Furthermore, in addition to the intercell coupling, electric and magnetic resonators within a unit cell may also exhibit magnetoelectric coupling. For such cells, we find an analytical expression for the effective index, which displays markedly characteristic dispersion features that depend on the strength of the coupling coefficient. We illustrate the applicability of the derived expressions by comparing to full-wave simulations on magnetoelectric unit cells. We conclude that the design of metamaterials with tailored simultaneous electric and magnetic response-such as negative index materials-will generally be complicated by potentially unwanted magnetoelectric coupling. © 2010 The American Physical Society.


Patent
Integrated Plasmonics | Date: 2013-12-03

A spatial filter is made by forming a structure comprising a focusing element and an opaque surface, the opaque surface being disposed remotely from the focusing element in substantially the same plane as a focal plane of the focusing element; and by forming a pinhole in the opaque surface at or adjacent to a focal point of the focusing element by transmitting a substantially collimated laser beam through the focusing element so that a point optimally corresponding to the focal point is identified on the opaque surface and imperfection of the focusing element, if any, is reflected on the shape and position of the pinhole so formed.


Patent
Integrated Plasmonics | Date: 2013-12-03

A microcuvette cartridge for optical measurement of a specimen includes: a substrate having a recess on an upper surface thereof to receive a fluid specimen therein, the substrate having a plurality of cavities therein to receive the fluid specimen transported from the recess, the substrate further defining a plurality of channels communicating with the recess and with the plurality of cavities, respectively, to transport the fluid specimen from the recess to the plurality of cavities, said substrate further having one or more of windows at positions corresponding to the plurality of cavities, the windows being transparent to wavelength of light with which the optical measurement is to be carried out so as to allow the light to interact with the fluid specimen in the cavities; and a transport mechanism to promote and complete flows of the fluid specimen from the recess to the plurality of cavities through the plurality of channels.


Patent
Integrated Plasmonics | Date: 2013-12-03

A spectroscopic measurement system, which may utilize multiple plasmonic filters associated with a cuvette to monitor different wavelengths of light. The spectroscopic measurement system may measure absorbance and or fluorescence, and may have built-in low cost CMOS image sensor(s). Reagents and samples may be introduced to the cuvette from a fluidics manifold. Multiple sets of combined cuvettes, image sensors and plasmonic filters may utilize a single fluidics manifold for reagent and sample distribution.


Patent
Integrated Plasmonics | Date: 2013-12-03

A detection system includes a planar plasmonic element for analyzing an analyte, the plasmonic element having dielectric and metallic regions, the plasmonic element emitting light that carries detected information; and a planar two-dimensional image sensor positioned in non-parallel angled relationship with respect to a plane of the plasmonic element to enhance a spatial image resolution for the light that carries detected information with respect to at least a portion of the light.


Patent
Integrated Plasmonics | Date: 2013-12-03

A spectroscopic device, which may be a handheld spectroscopic light source, which uses ambient light as a primary broadband light source, but which may be supplemented with an auxiliary light source to supplement band regions which may be deficient in the broad band source. The spectroscopic device makes use of a number of parallel control channels to monitor for sufficient light and to compensate for variations in the input light levels.


Patent
Integrated Plasmonics | Date: 2013-10-10

An integrated plasmonic sensing device is monolithically integrated and provides marker-free detection (eliminating the need to use fluorescent or absorbing markers) and in-situ monitoring of conditions at each detection region. The integrated plasmonic sensing device includes a plasmonic backplane disposed on a monolithically integrated image sensor. One or more plasmonic scattering regions and one or more plasmonic via regions laterally offset from the plasmonic scattering regions are provided in the plasmonic sensing device. Guided plasmonic modes mediate power transfer through the plasmonic backplane to one or more underlying image sensor pixels.


Patent
Integrated Plasmonics | Date: 2013-12-03

A device for detecting an analyte includes a light source emitting substantially monochromatic light; a two-dimensional diffraction element that interacts with the light from the light source, the diffraction element having one or more features that can generate plasmon waves upon receipt of the light from the light source, at least some of the features being configured to interact with the analyte; and a two-dimensional image sensor facing the diffraction element to receive diffracted light from the diffraction element so as to detect a diffraction pattern projected thereto and to measure a two-dimensional spatial change in the diffraction pattern that occurs as a result of the analyte interacting with the feature of the diffraction element.

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