Hameed A.A.,Integrated Pest Management Center |
Al-Taweel A.A.,Integrated Pest Management Center |
Eass A.J.,Integrated Pest Management Center |
Shalal R.N.,Integrated Pest Management Center |
Al-Garbawi Z.A.,Integrated Pest Management Center
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2010
The results are presented of the survey for Ephestia spp. and the parasitoid Bracon hebetor in date stores and in date palm orchards of five governorates (Baghdad, Karbala, Najaf, Babylon and Al-Qadesyia). These orchards are planted with the following cultivars of date palms: 'Zahdi', 'Sayer', 'Helawi' and 'Khadrawi', these four cultivars represent 76% of date trade in Iraq. It was revealed that the percentages of infested dates with Ephestia spp. larvae were 1.4, 16.5 and 14.4% in the dates collected either directly from date palms or collected from under the trees (fallen date) or from date stores in the Baghdad governorate. These percentages were 2.1, 11.0 and 22.7% for Karbala governorate, 2.6, 20.4 and 17.5% for Najaf governorate, 3.3, 14.1 and 27.7% for Babylon governorate and finally 0.9, 7.6 and 9.5% for Al-Qadesyia governorate. Furthermore the results showed that the percentage of paralyzed Ephestia spp. larvae by the parasitoid Bracon hebetor in the dates collected directly from the date palm trees, in the dates fallen under the date palm trees and in the dates examined from date stores were 22.7, 40.2 and 31.1% for Baghdad governorate, 47.6, 68.0 and 49.0% for Karbala governorate, 16.7, 53.3 and 30.2% for Najaf governorate, 40.0, 36.8 and 20.8% for Babylon governorate and 42.8, 75.0 and 67.4% for Al-Qadeyia governorate. These results suggest that the parasitoid Bracon hebetor accompanied its host Ephestia spp. larvae anywhere and it is possible to use it for controlling Ephestia spp. larvae instead of methyl bromide within an IPM project to control Ephestia spp. in Iraq.