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Guentzel J.L.,Coastal Carolina University | Lam K.L.,Integrated Environmental Technologies | Callan M.A.,Integrated Environmental Technologies | Emmons S.A.,Integrated Environmental Technologies | Dunham V.L.,Integrated Environmental Technologies
International Journal of Food Microbiology | Year: 2010

This study evaluated the potential use of near-neutral (pH=6.3-6.5) electrolyzed oxidizing water (EO water) to inactivate pure cultures of Botrytis cinerea and Monilinia fructicola and to mitigate fungal infection of these organisms on fruit surfaces. Treatment of these organisms, in pure culture, with EO water at concentrations of 25, 50, 75, and 100ppm total residual chlorine (TRC) and 10min of contact time resulted in a 6 log10 spores/mL reduction of both organisms. A dip treatment or a dip and daily spray treatment of EO water were used to evaluate its ability to prevent or delay the onset of surface infection on fruit during postharvest packaging and in retail shelf environments. A 10 minute dip treatment of surface inoculated peaches (M. fructicola) in EO water prevented infection for 3days and resulted in a 12.5% incidence of infection and a disease severity rating of 6% after 5days of storage at 25°C. Dipping of green table grapes inoculated with B. cinerea into EO water prevented infection for 7days and resulted in a 1% incidence of infection and a disease severity rating of 2% after 10days of storage at 25°C. A dip and daily spray of peaches with EO water prevented infection for 12days and resulted in a 10% incidence of infection and a 6% disease severity after 14days of storage at 25°C. A dip and daily spray of grapes with EO water prevented infection for 24days and resulted in a 2% incidence of infection and a disease severity rating of 2% after 26days of storage at 25°C. The results from this study suggest that these solutions may prove to be effective for postharvest sanitation of fruit surfaces prior to packaging and may increase the shelf life of the fruit in commercial settings. © 2010. Source


Guentzel J.L.,Coastal Carolina University | Callan M.A.,Integrated Environmental Technologies | Liang Lam K.,Integrated Environmental Technologies | Emmons S.A.,Integrated Environmental Technologies | Dunham V.L.,Integrated Environmental Technologies
Crop Protection | Year: 2011

Near neutral (pH = 6.3-6.5) electrolyzed oxidizing water (EO water) has been demonstrated to inactivate fungi in pure culture and to mitigate infection on fruit surfaces. One possible alternative or supplement to traditional pre-harvest crop management practices that currently rely on the use of large quantities of fungicides is near neutral EO water. In the present work, treatment of Botrytis cinerea or Monilinia fructicola with near neutral EO water (50 or 100 ppm total residual chlorine (TRC)) in pure culture resulted in a 106 reduction and 100% inactivation as evidenced by negative broth enrichment. When applied in concert with 50 or 100 ppm EO water, treatments of Captan 50WP (captan), Rovral (iprodione), Iprodione 4LAG (iprodione), or Switch 62.5 WDG (cyprodinil and fludioxonil) effectively inhibited fungal growth of B. cinerea as evidenced by a 106 reduction on the direct plate and negative broth enrichment. Treatments of Captan 50WG (captan), Rovral (iprodione), Iprodione 4LAG (iprodione), Switch 62.5 WDG (cyprodinil and fludioxonil), Captan 80 WDG (captan), or Captevate (captan and fenhexamide) when applied in concert with 50 or 100 ppm EO resulted in a 106 reduction of M. Fructicola and 100% inactivation as evidenced by negative broth enrichment. Strawberry plants sprayed with EO water (pH = 6.3-6.5) at concentrations of 50 and 100 ppm TRC once per week, did not result in significant (P > 0.05) phytotoxicity relative to a water (0 ppm TRC) treatment. In this study, the application of 100 ppm EO water (pH = 6.3-6.5) twice per week to strawberry plants infected with B. cinerea was more effective (P ≤ 0.05) than a once per week Captan application and as effective as a once per week captan/once per week EO treatment. The once per week captan/once per week EO treatment was significantly more effective (P ≤ 0.05) than the captan once per week treatment. Dip treatments of strawberries in near neutral EO solutions (50 and 100 ppm TRC; pH = 6.3-6.5) did not leave a chlorine residue on the fruit relative to a water dip. The results from this study suggest that near neutral EO solutions could be used to manage infection of B. cinerea on strawberry plants in the field and also as a disinfection solution for harvesting equipment, greenhouses, packing houses and in commercial facilities to prevent or manage infections of B. cinerea and M. fructicola. © 2011. Source

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