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Manjunatha B.,Shandong Academy of Sciences | Wei-bing P.,Shandong Academy of Sciences | Ke-chun L.,Shandong Academy of Sciences | Marigoudar S.R.,Integrated Coastal and Marine Area Management Project Directorate | And 3 more authors.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2014

The powder of henna is extensively used as decorative skin paint for nail coloring and as a popular hair dye in Asian countries. Its human health risk is extensive, and it is frequently released as waste into the aquatic environment raising the concerns. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos were employed to study the developmental effects of henna. Normal fertilized zebrafish embryos under standard water were selected for the control and test chambers. Three predetermined sublethal concentrations (100, 200, and 275 μM) of henna in 24-well cell culture plates were tested on 1-h postfertilized embryo (pfe) for 96 h. Observation for rates of survival and mortality was recorded; digital camera was used to image morphological anomalies of embryos with a stereomicroscope; and functional abnormalities at 24, 48, 72, and 96 h were performed. The hatching rates of embryos were reduced significantly when treated with 200 and 275 μM or higher concentrations of henna. Slow blood circulation in the whole body was observed with a median effect on hatching exposed to 200 and 275 μM of henna at 48-h pfe. At 72- and 96-h pfe, blood circulation was ceased in the whole body but still had a heartbeat. At 96-h pfe, pericardial sac edema, yolk sac edema, head deformation, spine crooked malformation, and tail malformation (bent tails or hook-like tails) were observed in the surviving larvae at 100 μM. In summary, exposure to henna at 100, 200, and 275 μM causes some altered morphological and physiological abnormalities including increased mortality, hatching delay, slow blood circulation, pericardial sac edema, yolk sac edema, abnormal body axes, twisted notochord, tail deformation, weak heartbeat, and growth retardation and was also detected in some treated embryos and groups having adverse effects on embryonic development of zebrafish provoking potential human developmental risk studies. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Rajakumari S.,Integrated Coastal and Marine Area Management Project Directorate | Subramanian B.R.,Integrated Coastal and Marine Area Management Project Directorate
Natural Hazards | Year: 2012

The Indian Ocean Tsunami of December 2004 caused inundation of seawater along the Northern coast of Tamil Nadu, India, resulting in loss of 8,000 people with extensive damage to properties. The paper describes the inundation of seawater in two northern districts, namely Kancheepuram and Villupuram districts, which showed distinct patterns of inundation of seawater and run-up levels due to variations in geomorphic features. TUNAMI N2 model was used to predict the seawater inundation for earthquakes occurred in 1881 at Car Nicobar, Sumatra 2004 and a worst-case scenario. The coastal areas with beaches having gentle slope showed more inundation compared with coastal areas having varied slope and habited by sand dunes and coastal vegetation. Appreciable inundation of seawater with tsunami simulated for 1881 Car Nicobar indicated that proximity to the source plays a major role besides earthquake parameters in causing inundation. The worst-case scenario generated from subduction zone of Car Nicobar using Sumatra 2004 earthquake parameters revealed extreme vulnerability of coasts of both the districts to giant tsunamis. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Rajakumari S.,Integrated Coastal and Marine Area Management Project Directorate | Subramanian B.R.,Integrated Coastal and Marine Area Management Project Directorate | Balasubramanian T.,Integrated Coastal and Marine Area Management Project Directorate | Balasubramanian T.,Annamalai University
Indian Journal of Marine Sciences | Year: 2010

Present study presents the spatial distribution of chemical elements, such as, dissolved oxygen and nitrate at Ennore and Puri using the data collected under the COMAPS programme to elucidate the extent of spatial variation of chemical elements seasonally. Transect based spatial data of these parameters collected at 0, 2 and 5 km distance in the sea was interpolated using the spatial analyst module of GIS and the interpolated area was ranged from 97-917 sq km. Data revealed the extent of spatial distribution of low oxygenated water in Ennore and Puri. From the spatial data collected at Chilika, it could be found that nitrate concentrations in the range of 0.01-2 μmol/l provided substantial Chlorophyll concentration of more than 4 mg/m3. Similar result was obtained for coastal waters of Ennore. Further, increase of nitrate levels did not lead to higher productivity. This implies that the nitrate uptake saturation levels could happen even at 2 μmol/l. From the results obtained, the spatial data has been found to be useful in determining zones of safe use of seawater and to understand the extent of relationship between the relatable parameters.


Kankara R.S.,Integrated Coastal and Marine Area Management Project Directorate | Arockiaraj S.,Integrated Coastal and Marine Area Management Project Directorate | Prabhu K.,Integrated Coastal and Marine Area Management Project Directorate
Marine Pollution Bulletin | Year: 2016

Integration of oil spill modeling with coastal resource information could be useful for protecting the coastal environment from oil spills. A scenario-based risk assessment and sensitivity indexing were performed for the Chennai coast by integrating a coastal resource information system and an oil spill trajectory model. The fate analysis of spilled oil showed that 55% of oil out of a total volume of 100m3 remained in the water column, affecting 800m of the shoreline. The seasonal scenarios show major impact during the southwest (SW) and northeast (NE) monsoons and more fatal effects on marine pelagic organisms during SW monsoon. The Oil Spill Risk Assessment Modeler tool was constructed in a geographic information systems (GIS) platform to analyze the risks, sensitivity mapping, and priority indexing of resources that are likely to be affected by oil spills along the Chennai coast. The results of sensitivity mapping and the risk assessment results can help organizations take measures to combat oil spills in a timely manner. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.


Mohanty P.K.,Berhampur University | Patra S.K.,Berhampur University | Bramha S.,Berhampur University | Seth B.,Berhampur University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Coastal Research | Year: 2012

Gopalpur Port is being developed as an all-weather open seaport from a fair-weather port which has existed since 1987. Two groins, a 530-m south groin and a 370-m north groin, were constructed during the periods from August 2007 to November 2009 and October 2007 to September 2008, respectively, on the north and south of the 500-m jetty which existed earlier. Port authorities are planning to construct a southern breakwater and a series of seven northern groins. Therefore, it is essential to assess the impacts of coastal structures on beach morphology and shoreline change in the present context and to predict future trends. To achieve this, a long-term observational programme has been conducted since May 2008. Observations include beach profile, shoreline change (berm position), littoral environment observations, and sedimentological characteristics at monthly intervals north and south of the port, covering a total distance of about 5 km. From the analysis of results, erosion is observed north of the northern groin, particularly during the monsoon season. From October to January, deposition is observed mostly in the foreshore which replenishes the erosive environment observed during monsoon. On the other hand, a constant depositional trend is noticed south of the southern groin for 1.5 km. To assess the impacts of the present groins, beach profile and sediment characteristics were compared with observations made from February 2002 to February 2003. The comparison distinctly shows the impact of groins on erosion and deposition on the north and south beaches of the port. Volume, beach width, and beach area estimates indicate that the rate of deposition on the south beach is much faster than the rate of erosion on the north. © 2012, the Coastal Education & Research Foundation (CERF).

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