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Richfield, WI, United States

Wang H.-T.,Tsinghua University | Jia Q.-S.,Tsinghua University | Song C.,United Technologies | Song C.,Integrated Building Systems | And 3 more authors.
Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Decision and Control | Year: 2010

Monitoring the number of occupants in each zone of a building is important for energy-efficient control of the HVAC system and the lighting system under normal conditions and for fast evacuation under emergency conditions. There usually exist multiple systems for localizing and monitoring the occupants in a building such as the active RFID system and the video cameras. The accuracy of each system is affected by different factors. Further hardware investment is usually required to improve the accuracy of each system. It is thus of practical interest to combine multiple systems to achieve higher counting accuracy without further hardware investment. In this paper, this problem is formulated as an information fusion problem under the criterion of minimum mean square error. However, it is usually difficult to solve the problem optimally due to the lack of data on the joint distribution of the observation noises of multiple systems. Two approximation methods are developed following the independence assumption and heuristics, respectively. Experimental results show that the two methods improve the accuracy of the active RFID system and the video cameras by around 43% and 73%, respectively. ©2010 IEEE. Source

Sun B.,Tsinghua National Laboratory for Information Sciences and Technology | Luh P.B.,Tsinghua National Laboratory for Information Sciences and Technology | Luh P.B.,University of Connecticut | Jia Q.-S.,Tsinghua National Laboratory for Information Sciences and Technology | And 4 more authors.
2010 IEEE International Conference on Automation Science and Engineering, CASE 2010 | Year: 2010

Improving the control of shading blinds, lights, natural ventilation, and HVAC systems while satisfying human comfort requirements can result in significant energy cost savings with time-of-day electricity pricing. Traditionally, the above-mentioned devices are controlled separately. In this paper, a novel formulation for the integrated control and the corresponding solution methodology are presented. The problem is to minimize daily energy costs of lights and HVAC systems while satisfying equipment capacities, system dynamics, and human comfort. The problem is complicated since 1) individual rooms are coupled as they compete for the HVAC with limited capacity and nonlinear characteristics, and 2) the problem is believed to be NP-hard in view that decision variables are all discrete. A solution methodology that combines Lagrangian relaxation and stochastic dynamic programming is developed within the surrogate optimization framework to obtain near-optimal strategies. These strategies are further refined to become novel control rules for easy practical implementation. Numerical simulation results show that both of the above strategies can effectively reduce the total energy cost, and that the integrated control works better than selected traditional control strategies. © 2010. Source

Sun B.,Tsinghua University | Luh P.B.,Tsinghua University | Luh P.B.,University of Connecticut | Jia Q.-S.,Tsinghua University | And 4 more authors.
IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering | Year: 2013

Buildings account for nearly 40% of global energy consumption. About 40% and 15% of that are consumed, respectively, by HVAC and lighting. These energy uses can be reduced by integrated control of active and passive sources of heating, cooling, lighting, shading and ventilation. However, rigorous studies of such control strategies are lacking since computationally tractable models are not available. In this paper, a novel formulation capturing key interactions of the above building functions is established to minimize the total daily energy cost. To obtain effective integrated strategies in a timely manner, a methodology that combines stochastic dynamic programming (DP) and the rollout technique is developed within the price-based coordination framework. For easy implementation, DP-derived heuristic rules are developed to coordinate shading blinds and natural ventilation, with simplified optimization strategies for HVAC and lighting systems. Numerical simulation results show that these strategies are scalable, and can effectively reduce energy costs and improve human comfort. © 2012 IEEE. Source

Integrated Building Systems | Entity website

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Integrated Building Systems | Entity website

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