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Integrated Building Systems

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Sun B.,Tsinghua National Laboratory for Information Sciences and Technology | Luh P.B.,Tsinghua National Laboratory for Information Sciences and Technology | Luh P.B.,University of Connecticut | Jia Q.-S.,Tsinghua National Laboratory for Information Sciences and Technology | And 4 more authors.
2010 IEEE International Conference on Automation Science and Engineering, CASE 2010 | Year: 2010

Improving the control of shading blinds, lights, natural ventilation, and HVAC systems while satisfying human comfort requirements can result in significant energy cost savings with time-of-day electricity pricing. Traditionally, the above-mentioned devices are controlled separately. In this paper, a novel formulation for the integrated control and the corresponding solution methodology are presented. The problem is to minimize daily energy costs of lights and HVAC systems while satisfying equipment capacities, system dynamics, and human comfort. The problem is complicated since 1) individual rooms are coupled as they compete for the HVAC with limited capacity and nonlinear characteristics, and 2) the problem is believed to be NP-hard in view that decision variables are all discrete. A solution methodology that combines Lagrangian relaxation and stochastic dynamic programming is developed within the surrogate optimization framework to obtain near-optimal strategies. These strategies are further refined to become novel control rules for easy practical implementation. Numerical simulation results show that both of the above strategies can effectively reduce the total energy cost, and that the integrated control works better than selected traditional control strategies. © 2010.


Sun B.,Tsinghua University | Luh P.B.,Tsinghua University | Luh P.B.,University of Connecticut | Jia Q.-S.,Tsinghua University | And 4 more authors.
IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering | Year: 2013

Buildings account for nearly 40% of global energy consumption. About 40% and 15% of that are consumed, respectively, by HVAC and lighting. These energy uses can be reduced by integrated control of active and passive sources of heating, cooling, lighting, shading and ventilation. However, rigorous studies of such control strategies are lacking since computationally tractable models are not available. In this paper, a novel formulation capturing key interactions of the above building functions is established to minimize the total daily energy cost. To obtain effective integrated strategies in a timely manner, a methodology that combines stochastic dynamic programming (DP) and the rollout technique is developed within the price-based coordination framework. For easy implementation, DP-derived heuristic rules are developed to coordinate shading blinds and natural ventilation, with simplified optimization strategies for HVAC and lighting systems. Numerical simulation results show that these strategies are scalable, and can effectively reduce energy costs and improve human comfort. © 2012 IEEE.


Zhu L.,CAS Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences | del Vecchio G.,University of Bologna | de Micheli G.,Integrated Building Systems | Liu Y.,CAS Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences | And 3 more authors.
BioNanoScience | Year: 2011

Regenerative medicine is a novel clinical branch aiming at the cure of diseases by replacement of damaged tissues. The crucial use of stem cells makes this area rich of challenges, given the poorly understood mechanisms of differentiation. One highly needed and yet unavailable technology should allow us to monitor the exact (metabolic) state of stem cells differentiation to maximize the effectiveness of their implant in vivo. This is challenged by the fact that not all relevant metabolites in stem cells differentiation are known and not all metabolites can currently be continuously monitored. To bring advancements in this direction, we propose the enhancement and integration of two available technologies into a general pipeline. Namely, high-throughput biochip for gene expression screening to pre-select the variables that are most likely to be relevant in the identification of the stem cells' state and low-throughput biochip for continuous monitoring of cell metabolism with highly sensitive carbon nanotubes-based sensors. Intriguingly, additionally to the involvement of multidisciplinary expertise (medicine, molecular biology, computer science, engineering, and physics), this whole query heavily relies on biochips: it starts in fact from the use of high-throughput ones, which output, in turn, becomes the base for the design of low-throughput, highly sensitive biochips. Future research is warranted in this direction to develop and validated the proposed device. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Wang H.-T.,Tsinghua University | Jia Q.-S.,Tsinghua University | Song C.,United Technologies | Song C.,Integrated Building Systems | And 3 more authors.
Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Decision and Control | Year: 2010

Monitoring the number of occupants in each zone of a building is important for energy-efficient control of the HVAC system and the lighting system under normal conditions and for fast evacuation under emergency conditions. There usually exist multiple systems for localizing and monitoring the occupants in a building such as the active RFID system and the video cameras. The accuracy of each system is affected by different factors. Further hardware investment is usually required to improve the accuracy of each system. It is thus of practical interest to combine multiple systems to achieve higher counting accuracy without further hardware investment. In this paper, this problem is formulated as an information fusion problem under the criterion of minimum mean square error. However, it is usually difficult to solve the problem optimally due to the lack of data on the joint distribution of the observation noises of multiple systems. Two approximation methods are developed following the independence assumption and heuristics, respectively. Experimental results show that the two methods improve the accuracy of the active RFID system and the video cameras by around 43% and 73%, respectively. ©2010 IEEE.


Vondran G.,Hewlett - Packard | Makris K.,Integrated Building Systems | Fragopoulos D.,Integrated Building Systems | Papadas C.,Integrated Building Systems | Kumari N.,Hewlett - Packard
InterSociety Conference on Thermal and Thermomechanical Phenomena in Electronic Systems, ITHERM | Year: 2012

As the number of processors per die increase, chip thermal hotspots become increasingly more concentrated within smaller and smaller areas. Furthermore, these hotspots can change as processors are dynamically throttled or taken in and out of sleep mode based upon load and overall thermal budgets. Current cooling solutions (e.g. heatsinks, heatpipes, and even liquid cooling solutions) extract heat from the chip level but cannot independently control temperature at the hotspot level. The presented solution utilizes InkJet heads to deliver precise coolant flow rate independently to each chip location to maintain very high heat transfer rate via sustained liquid-to-vapor phase change. The result is a 10-100x improvement in thermal extraction rates over existing cooling solutions, achieving heat transfer rate as high as 4.5kW/cm 2. Additionally, because each hotspot is maintained independently eliminating any large temperature gradient over the entire chip surface area, the ability to operate chips at higher operating points is now possible. This paper presents a heat sink prototype based on the inkjet-assisted spray cooling technology. The heat sink utilizes an air-cooled vapor chamber to condense and recirculate the evaporated liquid to achieve a fully closed system within the vapor chamber enclosure. The design of the prototyped solution is presented © 2012 IEEE.


Ghaye J.,Integrated Building Systems | De Micheli G.,Integrated Building Systems | Carrara S.,Integrated Building Systems
BioNanoScience | Year: 2012

Digital image processing and epifluorescence microscopy provide one of the main and basic tools for living biological cell analysis and studying. Developing, testing, and comparing those image processing methods properly is eased by the use of a controlled environment. Taking advantage of an existing database of verified and trustworthy images and metadata helps controlling the validity of the processing results. Manually generating that golden database is a long process involving specialists being able to apprehend and extract useful data out of fluorescent images. Having enough cases in the database to challenge the processing methods and gain trust in them can only be achieved manually through time-consuming, prone to human-error processes. More and more we need to automate this process. This paper presents a framework implementing a novel approach to generate synthetic fluorescent images of fluorescently stained cell populations by simulating the imaging process of fluorescent molecules. Ultimately, the proposed simulator allows us to generate images and golden data to populate the database, thus providing tools for the development, evaluation, and testing of processing algorithms meant to be used in automated systems. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012.


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