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Mehta S.,Integrated Brain Imaging Center | Kratz M.,Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center | Goldberg J.,Epidemiologic Research and Information Center | Maravilla K.R.,Magnetic Resonance Research Laboratory | And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2016

Background: Neural responses to highly energetic food cues are robust and are suppressed by eating. It is not known if neural responsiveness to food cues is an inherited trait and possibly even one that mediates the genetic influences on body weight that have been previously observed. Objective: We investigated the inherited influence on brain responses to high-calorie visual food cues before and after a meal. Design: With the use of a monozygotic twin study design, 21 healthy monozygotic twin pairs consumed a standardized breakfast and, 3.5 h later, underwent the first of 2 functional MRI (fMRI) scans with the use of visual food cues. After the first fMRI session, twins consumed a standardized meal, which was followed by the second fMRI. Serial ratings of appetite and food appeal were obtained. An ad libitum buffet was used to measure total caloric and macronutrient intakes. Intraclass correlations (ICCs) were used to test for inherited influences by comparing whether intrapair similarity was greater than interpair similarity. Results: Body mass index was highly correlated within twin pairs (ICC: 0.96; P < 0.0001). ICCs also showed a strong intrapair similarity for the meal-induced change in hunger (ICC: 0.41; P = 0.03), fullness (ICC: 0.39; P = 0.04), and the appeal of fattening food (ICC: 0.57; P < 0.001). Twins ate a similar number of kilocalories at the buffet (ICC: 0.43; P = 0.02). Before the meal, the global brain activation across regions involved in satiety processing was not more similar in twins than in unrelated individuals. However, significant ICCs were present after the meal (ICC: 0.39; P = 0.04) and for the meal-induced change in activation by high-calorie visual food cues (ICC: 0.52; P < 0.01). Conclusion: Inherited factors influence both satiety perception and the effect of a meal to alter regional brain responses to images of highly energetic food. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition. Source


Roth C.L.,Seattle Childrens Research Institute | Aylward E.,Seattle Childrens Research Institute | Liang O.,Integrated Brain Imaging Center | Kleinhans N.M.,Integrated Brain Imaging Center | And 2 more authors.
Obesity Facts | Year: 2012

Objective: To use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in craniopharyngioma (CP) patients to examine the hypothesis that hypothalamic damage due to CP and its treatment results in enhanced perception of food reward and/or impaired central satiety processing. Methods: Pre- and post-meal responses to visual food cues in brain regions of interest (ROI; bilateral nucleus accumbens, bilateral insula, and medial orbitofrontal cortex) were assessed in 4 CP patients versus 4 age- and weight-matched controls. Stimuli consisted of images of high- ('fattening') and low-calorie ('non-fattening') foods in blocks, alternating with non-food object blocks. After the first fMRI scan, subjects drank a high-calorie test meal to suppress appetite, then completed a second fMRI scan. Within each ROI, we calculated mean z-scores for activation by fattening as compared to non-fattening food images. Results: Following the test meal, controls showed suppression of activation by food cues while CP patients showed trends towards higher activation. Conclusion: These data, albeit in a small group of patients, support our hypothesis that perception of food cues may be altered in hypothalamic obesity (HO), especially after eating, i.e. in the satiated state. The fMRI approach is encouraging for performing future mechanistic studies of the brain response to food cues and satiety in patients with hypothalamic or other forms of childhood obesity. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg. Source


Wang S.,900 Stevens Way | Wang S.,Integrated Brain Imaging Center | Bowen S.R.,959 NE Pacific St | Chaovalitwongse W.A.,900 Stevens Way | And 4 more authors.
Physics in Medicine and Biology | Year: 2014

The benefits of respiratory gating in quantitative PET/CT vary tremendously between individual patients. Respiratory pattern is among many patient-specific characteristics that are thought to play an important role in gating-induced imaging improvements. However, the quantitative relationship between patient-specific characteristics of respiratory pattern and improvements in quantitative accuracy from respiratory-gated PET/CT has not been well established. If such a relationship could be estimated, then patient-specific respiratory patterns could be used to prospectively select appropriate motion compensation during image acquisition on a per-patient basis. This study was undertaken to develop a novel statistical model that predicts quantitative changes in PET/CT imaging due to respiratory gating. Free-breathing static FDG-PET images without gating and respiratory-gated FDG-PET images were collected from 22 lung and liver cancer patients on a PET/CT scanner. PET imaging quality was quantified with peak standardized uptake value (SUV peak) over lesions of interest. Relative differences in SUV peak between static and gated PET images were calculated to indicate quantitative imaging changes due to gating. A comprehensive multidimensional extraction of the morphological and statistical characteristics of respiratory patterns was conducted, resulting in 16 features that characterize representative patterns of a single respiratory trace. The six most informative features were subsequently extracted using a stepwise feature selection approach. The multiple-regression model was trained and tested based on a leave-one-subject-out cross-validation. The predicted quantitative improvements in PET imaging achieved an accuracy higher than 90% using a criterion with a dynamic error-tolerance range for SUVpeak values. The results of this study suggest that our prediction framework could be applied to determine which patients would likely benefit from respiratory motion compensation when clinicians quantitatively assess PET/CT for therapy target definition and response assessment. © 2014 Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine. Source

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