Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-SA | Phase: TPT-2008.0.0.8 | Award Amount: 1.63M | Year: 2010
TransNEW is a Horizontal Activity for the implementation of the Transport Programme. It is a Coordinating and Support Action aimed at supporting transport research activities in the New Member States. It contributes to the implementation of the Framework Programme and to the preparation of future Community research and technological development. It also stimulates, encourages and facilitates the participation of the New Member States and particularly SMEs in those countries in national, regional and European research. TransNEW has one primary focus to assess, analyse and define strategies for realising New Member and Associated States potentials in transport research. This is absolutely in line with the Integration/Efficiency Topic TPT.2008.8. TransNEW aims to map the transport research capacities in new Member States (and Associated States) by analysing their transport research activities to establish their recent patterns of collaboration. With this information evaluated by Mode and by Activity this will then be used to maximise the benefits of transport research at regional level and at a mode level. TransNEW covers all the transport modes including Aeronautics and aims to evaluate research capability in order to support the involvement of New Member States in a number of topics and potentially exploit the synergies between Air transport and surface transport modes. Through mode evaluation, TransNEW will assess the research actors who can make an active contribution to the common (transport research) objectives of advancing competitiveness, anticipating and responding to the socio-economic and environmental challenges of the transport system. TransNEW will cluster the research capacity results by Activities. The five Activities are: 1. Greening - environmental impacts of transport and climate change 2. Enhanced integration of transport modes 3. Safety and Security 4. Transport system efficiency and Mobility 5. Competitiveness
Kadish S.J.,Brown University |
Kadish S.J.,Integral Consulting Inc. |
Head J.W.,Brown University |
Fastook J.L.,University of Maine, United States |
Marchant D.R.,Boston University
Planetary and Space Science | Year: 2014
Fan-shaped deposits (FSDs) extending to the northwest of the Tharsis Montes on Mars are the remnants of Amazonian-aged, cold-based, tropical mountain glaciers. We use high-resolution images to perform new impact crater size-frequency distribution (CSFD) analyses on these deposits in an effort to constrain the timing and duration of ice accumulation at tropical latitudes on Mars. This analysis revises the current understanding of the chronology regarding the formation of the glaciers and of the ridged facies in the Arsia Mons deposit, a deposit interpreted to be formed from recessional cold-based drop moraines. We develop a conceptual model that illustrates the effect of moving glacial ice on superposed impact craters of various sizes, including the buffering of underlying geologic units from impacts caused by the presence of the ice for extended periods of time, and the interpretation of crater retention ages of the subsequent glacial deposits following the periods of active glaciation. The new CSFD analyses establish best-fit crater retention ages for each entire Tharsis Montes FSD; these are ~220 Ma for the Ascraeus FSD at 8.35 S, ~125 Ma for the Pavonis FSD at 1.48 N, and ~210 Ma for the Arsia FSD at 11.92 N. Because the age for each deposit represents a combination of the stratigraphically older ridged facies and the younger knobby and smooth facies, the crater retention ages are most likely to represent dates subsequent to the onset of glaciation and prior to its final cessation. Estimates of the time necessary to build the deposits using net accumulation rates from atmospheric general circulation models and emplacement rates from glacial flow models suggest durations of ~45-150 Ma, depending on the specific obliquity history. These surface crater retention ages and related age estimates require that massive volumes of ice (on the order of 105 km3) were emplaced at tropical latitudes on Mars during the Middle to Late Amazonian. Additionally, we determined CSFD ages of three adjacent drop moraine units at Arsia Mons (725 Ma, 475 Ma and 345 Ma) and used these to calculate the average amount of time needed to form one of the approximately 185 drop moraines forming these deposits; we found that a typical drop moraine formation time in the Arsia FSD ridged facies to be on the order of ~106 years. These formation ages are considerably longer than that required for typical moraine systems alongside dynamic, wet-based glaciers on Earth, but are in approximate accord with recent geomorphological and geochemical data that document long-term, ice-margin stability for several cold-based glaciers in interior Antarctica. The difference in the ages of the ridged facies and non-ridged portion of the Arsia FSD suggests that the tropical mountain glaciers may have been emplaced over a period spanning many hundreds of millions of years. CSFD measurements for lava flows predating and postdating the Arsia Mons FSD suggest a maximum possible age of <750 Ma and a minimum age for the late stage, post FSD lava flows of ~105 Ma. Taken together, this evidence supports a scenario in which ice has been present and stable in substantial quantities (~10 5-106 km3) at tropical latitudes during extended periods of the Middle to Late Amazonian history of Mars. This implies that during this time, Mars sustained periods of spin-axis obliquity in the vicinity of 45, during which time polar ice deposits were substantially reduced in volume or perhaps even absent. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Landis W.G.,Western Washington University |
Durda J.L.,Integral Consulting Inc. |
Brooks M.L.,Southern Illinois University Carbondale |
Chapman P.M.,Golder Associates |
And 3 more authors.
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry | Year: 2013
Changes to sources, stressors, habitats, and geographic ranges; toxicological effects; end points; and uncertainty estimation require significant changes in the implementation of ecological risk assessment (ERA). Because of the lack of analog systems and circumstances in historically studied sites, there is a likelihood of type III error. As a first step, the authors propose a decision key to aid managers and risk assessors in determining when and to what extent climate change should be incorporated. Next, when global climate change is an important factor, the authors recommend seven critical changes to ERA. First, develop conceptual cause-effect diagrams that consider relevant management decisions as well as appropriate spatial and temporal scales to include both direct and indirect effects of climate change and the stressor of management interest. Second, develop assessment end points that are expressed as ecosystem services. Third, evaluate multiple stressors and nonlinear responses-include the chemicals and the stressors related to climate change. Fourth, estimate how climate change will affect or modify management options as the impacts become manifest. Fifth, consider the direction and rate of change relative to management objectives, recognizing that both positive and negative outcomes can occur. Sixth, determine the major drivers of uncertainty, estimating and bounding stochastic uncertainty spatially, temporally, and progressively. Seventh, plan for adaptive management to account for changing environmental conditions and consequent changes to ecosystem services. Good communication is essential for making risk-related information understandable and useful for managers and stakeholders to implement a successful risk-assessment and decision-making process. © 2012 SETAC.
Sackmann B.S.,Integral Consulting Inc. |
Becker D.S.,719 2 Avenue
Marine Ecology Progress Series | Year: 2015
Haney et al. (2014a,b; Mar Ecol Prog Ser 513:225-237, 239-252) developed probability models to estimate seabird mortality from oil exposure during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Although frequently used to characterize avian mortality following oil spills, probability models often yield uncertain results when developed without spill- and/or region-specific data. Models based on observations of beached carcasses or exposure/mortality scenarios are sensitive to variations in assumptions and methods used to summarize data sets for model parameterization and validation. Here we present alternative parameter estimates derived from spill- and Gulf of Mexico (GoM)-specific data, and offer suggestions for reducing model uncertainty. As a primary example, we evaluate the carcass transport probability to shorelines using GoM-specific data collected in 2011 to show that Haney et al. underestimated this probability by more than an order of magnitude, thus inflating mortality estimates. © Integral Consulting Inc. 2015.
Jensen P.D.,Integral Consulting Inc. |
Dively G.P.,University of Maryland University College |
Swan C.M.,University of Maryland Baltimore County |
Lamp W.O.,University of Maryland University College
Environmental Entomology | Year: 2010
Corn (Zea mays L.) transformed with a gene from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) comprises 49% of all corn in the United States. The input of senesced corn tissue expressing the Bt gene may impact stream-inhabiting invertebrates that process plant debris, especially trichopteran species related to the target group of lepidopteran pests. Our goal was to assess risk associated with transgenic corn debris entering streams. First, we show the input of corn tissue after harvest was extended over months in a stream. Second, using laboratory bioassays based on European corn borer [Ostrinia nubilalis (Hbner)], we found no bioactivity of Cry1Ab protein in senesced corn tissue after 2 wk of exposure to terrestrial or aquatic environments. Third, we show that Bt near-isolines modify growth and survivorship of some species of invertebrates. Of the four nontarget invertebrate species fed Bt near-isolines, growth of two closely related trichopterans was not negatively affected, whereas a tipulid crane fly exhibited reduced growth rates, and an isopod exhibited reduced growth and survivorship on the Cry1Ab near-isoline but not on the stacked Cry1Ab + Cry3Bb1 near-isoline. Because of lack of evidence of bioactivity of Bt after 2 wk and because of lack of nontarget effects on the stacked near-isoline, we suggest that tissue-mediated differences, and not the presence of the Cry1Ab protein, caused the different responses among the species. Overall, our results provide evidence that adverse effects to aquatic nontarget shredders involve complex interactions arising from plant genetics and environment that cannot be ascribed to the presence of Cry1Ab proteins. © 2010 Entomological Society of America.
Ruby M.V.,Integral Consulting Inc. |
Lowney Y.W.,Exponent, Inc.
Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2012
Over the last 30 years, there has been extensive research designed to quantify the extent of oral bioavailability and bioaccessibility of organic and inorganic contaminants in soil. One aspect of this research is the soil particle size selected to represent environmental exposures, which may affect study results and comparability across studies. Different research groups have studied soil particle sizes ranging from <45 μm to <2000 μm. This article reviews the historical and technical considerations that pertain to the selection of an appropriate particle size fraction for evaluating the relative oral bioavailability of chemicals from soil, which include (1) how the resultant data will be used in human health risk assessment, (2) soil fractions historically used in oral bioavailability studies, (3) studies of soil adherence to human hands, (4) the distribution of contaminants in soils as a function of particle size, and (5) the effect of differential bioavailability as a function of soil particle size and geochemical matrix. These factors are first discussed from a general perspective, applicable to all contaminants in soil, and then more specifically for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil. Based on this review, a specific soil particle size of <150 μm is recommended for future studies on the oral bioavailability and bioaccessibility of PAHs in soil. © 2012 American Chemical Society.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: MG-5.4-2015 | Award Amount: 4.11M | Year: 2016
SUITS takes a sociotechnical approach to capacity building in Local Authorities and transport stakeholder organisations with special emphasis on the transfer of learning to smaller sized cities, making them more effective and resilient to change in the judicious implementation of sustainable transport measures. Key outputs will be a validated capacity building program for transport departments, and resource light learning assets (modules, e-learning material, webinars and workshops), decision support tools to assist in procurement, innovative financing, engagement of new business partners and handling of open, real time and legacy data. SUITS argues that without capacity building and the transformation of transport departments into learning organisations, training materials will not provide the step change needed to provide innovative transport measures. Working with nine cities to model gaps in their understanding, motivation, communication and work practices, will provide each city with a map of its own strengths and weaknesses with respect to sustainable transport planning. From this, strategies to enhance capacity, based on each authoritys needs will be developed and organisations provided with the necessary techniques to increase their own capacity, mentored directly by research partners. Local champions will be trained to continue capacity building after the project. Using the CIVITAS framework for impact evaluation, the effectiveness and impact of SUITS in enabling reductions in transport problems such as congestion and pollution while improving cities capacity to grow as well as the quality of life for urban dwellers and commuters through the development of inclusive, integrated transport measures will be measured in the cities and at individual, organisational and institutional levels. All project outcomes will be disseminated in a stakeholder engagement program at local, national and EU wide levels, thereby increasing the likelihood of successful transport measures.
Kadish S.J.,Brown University |
Kadish S.J.,Integral Consulting Inc. |
Head J.W.,Brown University
Planetary and Space Science | Year: 2014
There is significant geomorphologic evidence for the past presence of longitudinally widespread, latitudinally zoned deposits composed of ice-rich material at the northern and southern mid latitudes on Mars (lobate debris aprons, lineated valley fill, concentric crater fill, pedestal craters, etc.). Among these features, pedestal craters (Pd) are impact craters interpreted to have produced a protective layer on top of decameters-thick ice deposits now missing in intercrater regions. The time during which these various deposits were present is still highly debated. To address this question we have analyzed the distribution and characteristics of pedestal craters; here, we use a population of 2287 pedestal craters (Pd) to derive a crater retention age for the entire population, obtaining a minimum timescale of formation of ~90 Myr. Given that the ice-rich deposit has not been continuously present for this duration, the timescale of formation is necessarily longer than ~100 Myr. We then compiled impact crater size-frequency distribution dates for 50 individual pedestal craters in both hemispheres to further assess the frequency distribution of individual ages. We calculated pedestal crater ages that ranged from ~1 Myr to ~3.6 Gyr, with a median of ~140 Myr. In addition, 70% of the pedestal ages are less than 250 Myr. During the 150 Myr period between 25 Ma and 175 Ma, we found at least one pedestal age every 15 Myr. This suggests that the ice-rich paleodeposit accumulated frequently during that time period. We then applied these results to the relationship between obliquity and latitudinal ice stability to suggest some constraints on the obliquity history of Mars over the past 200 Myr. Atmospheric general circulation models indicate that ice stability over long periods in the mid latitudes is favored by moderate mean obliquities in the ~35 range. Models of spin-axis/orbital parameter evolution predict that the average obliquity of Mars is ~38. Our data represent specific observational evidence that ice-rich deposits accumulated frequently during the past 200 Myr, supporting the prediction that Mars was characterized by this obliquity range during an extensive part of that time period. Using these results as a foundation, the dating of other non-polar ice deposits will permit the specific obliquity history to be derived and lead to an assessment of volatile transport paths in the climate history of Mars. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SST.2012.3.1-1. | Award Amount: 3.54M | Year: 2012
Public transport is central to peoples lives and well-being, especially vulnerable groups (e.g. less mobile, elderly and disabled). It is essential in providing access to employment, shops, services and leisure. The need to encourage greater public transport use is critical in achieving sustainability targets. For many, the perception and reality of public transport does not encourage use, especially when multimodal forms of transport are needed. A holistic understanding of passenger experience is critical to develop and support transport accessibility. Whilst previous research has focussed on different aspects of passenger experience, the diversity of tools developed limits their usefulness, effectiveness and transferability. Given the maturity of research, there is a need to synthesize methods and knowledge, to produce a pan-European standardised tool for use across transport modes and with different passenger groups to focus attention away from the design of discrete elements to the whole journey experience. Taking a holistic approach to the study of the passenger experience will provide a bridge between transport, sustainability, design, accessibility and land use; acknowledging the central importance of mobility to quality of life. To plug this gap, METPEX will develop an inclusive passenger experience measurement tool for European transport providers, passenger groups and municipalities validated through its use across 8 sites of varying transport complexity. Its development will be informed by the consortiums understanding that data collection methods themselves have to be inclusive. The data collected will enable the creation and dissemination of service quality and accessibility benchmark indicators. Through its deployment the tool will have far reaching impact in terms of providing more grounded intelligence to inform transport design, accessibility, land use and sustainability, and ultimately improve mobility and quality of life for EU citizens.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SST.2010.4.1-1. | Award Amount: 3.20M | Year: 2011
The aim of the SECURESTATION project is to improve passenger station and terminal resilience to terrorist attacks and safety incidents through technologies and methodologies enabling design to reduce the impact of blast, fire and the dispersion of toxic agents on passengers, staff and infrastructure. Objectives: SecureStation will consider threats from terrorist attacks and safety incidents caused by blast, fire and accidental or deliberate particle dispersion. The four project objectives are: 1. To increase resilience of passenger stations and terminals through structural design, interior design, and building services design, realising everyday benefits while designing for security. 2. To ensure cost-effectiveness of countermeasures through application of risk analysis methodologies to prioritise actions taken in design and operation of passenger stations and terminals 3. To deliver a Constructive Design Handbook addressing new build and retro-fit cases to serve as a powerful decision support tool for owners and operators to increase station security and safety from terrorist bomb blast, CBRN attacks involving particle dispersion, and fire events. 4. To create harmonization and the standardization of risk assessment methodologies, technologies and design solutions thereby supporting wide application by the numerous EC public transport organisations and associated key stakeholders. Therefore, the main focus of the SecureStation proposal will be to produce the necessary tools to build safer and more secure infrastructure whilst providing maximum operating resilience. The proposal covers the development of Risk Assessment Methodology (including simulation results), specifically focusing on passenger stations/ terminals (a scenario specific methodology) and the development of a Constructive Design Handbook. These two main outputs will be accompanied by dissemination activity at a transport security conference, and through an extensive End User group.