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Arlington, VA, United States

The Insurance Institute for Highway Safety is a U.S. non-profit organization funded by auto insurers, established in 1959 and headquartered in Arlington, Virginia. It works to reduce the number of motor vehicle crashes, and the rate of injuries and amount of property damage in the crashes that still occur. It carries out research and produces ratings for popular passenger vehicles as well as for certain consumer products such as child car booster seats. It also conducts research on road design and traffic regulations, and has been involved in promoting policy decisions. Wikipedia.


Jermakian J.S.,Insurance Institute for Highway Safety
Accident Analysis and Prevention | Year: 2011

Objectives: The objective was to update estimates of maximum potential crash reductions in the United States associated with each of four crash avoidance technologies: side view assist, forward collision warning/mitigation, lane departure warning/prevention, and adaptive headlights. Compared with previous estimates (Farmer, 2008), estimates in this study attempted to account for known limitations of current systems. Methods: Crash records were extracted from the 2004-08 files of the National Automotive Sampling System General Estimates System (NASS GES) and the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS). Crash descriptors such as vehicle damage location, road characteristics, time of day, and precrash maneuvers were reviewed to determine whether the information or action provided by each technology potentially could have prevented or mitigated the crash. Results: Of the four crash avoidance technologies, forward collision warning/mitigation had the greatest potential for preventing crashes of any severity; the technology is potentially applicable to 1.2 million crashes in the United States each year, including 66,000 serious and moderate injury crashes and 879 fatal crashes. Lane departure warning/prevention systems appeared relevant to 179,000 crashes per year. Side view assist and adaptive headlights could prevent 395,000 and 142,000 crashes per year, respectively. Lane departure warning/prevention was relevant to the most fatal crashes, up to 7500 fatal crashes per year. A combination of all four current technologies potentially could prevent or mitigate (without double counting) up to 1,866,000 crashes each year, including 149,000 serious and moderate injury crashes and 10,238 fatal crashes. If forward collision warning were extended to detect objects, pedestrians, and bicyclists, it would be relevant to an additional 3868 unique fatal crashes. Conclusions: There is great potential effectiveness for vehicle-based crash avoidance systems. However, it is yet to be determined how drivers will interact with the systems. The actual effectiveness of these systems will not be known until sufficient real-world experience has been gained. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved. Source


Brumbelow M.L.,Insurance Institute for Highway Safety
Traffic Injury Prevention | Year: 2012

Objective: To evaluate the maximum potential for side underride guards (SUGs) to reduce passenger vehicle occupant fatalities and injuries in crashes with large trucks in the United States.Methods: Examination of the Large Truck Crash Causation Study (LTCCS) identified 206 crash events involving a passenger vehicle impact with the side of a large truck. Each case was evaluated to determine whether the most severe injury sustained by a passenger vehicle occupant was a result of the impact with the side of the truck and whether an SUG could have reduced the injury severity. Data from the 2006-2008 Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) and Trucks Involved in Fatal Accidents (TIFA) survey were used to compare the types of trucks involved in all fatal side impacts with passenger vehicles with the truck types in the LTCCS cases that were studied. FARS and TIFA data also were used to estimate the total annual number of passenger vehicle occupants killed in truck side impacts.Results: In 143 of the 206 cases, the truck side impact produced the most severe injury sustained by a passenger vehicle occupant. In the other cases, no passenger vehicle occupant was injured or the most severe injury was due to an event preceding or following the truck side impact. Forty-nine of these occupants sustained injuries coded as level 3 or higher on the abbreviated injury scale (AIS) or were killed. SUGs could have reduced injury severity in 76 of the 143 cases, including 38 of the 49 cases with an AIS ≥ 3 coded injury or fatality. Semi-trailers were the most common type of impacted truck unit, both overall and when considering only cases where an SUG could have mitigated injury severity. Crashes where the front of the passenger vehicle struck the side of the semi-trailer perpendicularly or obliquely from the oncoming direction were less common overall than side-to-side and oblique/same direction crashes but more often produced an AIS ≥ 3 injury or fatality. The distribution of truck types in the LTCCS sample was similar to that in the FARS and TIFA data. Overall, around 1600 passenger vehicle occupants were killed in 2-vehicle truck side impact crashes during 2006-2008, or 22 percent of all passenger vehicle occupants who died in 2-vehicle crashes with large trucks.Conclusions: Structural incompatibility was a common factor in LTCCS crashes between passenger vehicles and the sides of large trucks. SUGs could have reduced injury risk in around three fourths of the crashes that produced an AIS ≥ 3 injury or fatality. Most of these crashes involved semi-trailers. However, the necessary strength and location of these SUGs present technical challenges that need to be addressed. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source


Kidd D.G.,Insurance Institute for Highway Safety
Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour | Year: 2012

Enhanced seat belt reminders are an effective means of increasing seat belt use. It is important to optimize the design of these systems so that they increase belt use and are acceptable to vehicle occupants. This study examined the effects of duty cycle and duration on seat belt reminder effectiveness and annoyance. It also evaluated the European New Car Assessment Programme (Euro NCAP) duration requirement. Eighty part-time belt users experienced one of four seat belt reminders in a driving simulator and rated the likelihood that they would buckle up and how annoyed they were every 45 s. Overall, participants that experienced an enhanced reminder said they would be more likely to buckle up than participants that experienced a basic reminder which complied with but did not exceed the US federal requirements. The reported likelihood of buckling up did not change significantly as reminder duration increased. Increasing the duty cycle of the chime and flashing icon in a reminder cycle did not influence these ratings either, but it did make the system more annoying. Reducing the duty cycle of enhanced reminders would be one method of increasing user acceptance while ensuring the reminder system still motivates belt use. Lastly, the variation in duration and duty cycle permitted under Euro NCAP requirements for seat belt reminders did not affect the reported likelihood of belt use for participants in the three enhanced reminder conditions. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Jermakian J.S.,Insurance Institute for Highway Safety
Accident Analysis and Prevention | Year: 2012

Objectives: The objective of this paper was to estimate the maximum potential large truck crash reductions in the United States associated with each of four crash avoidance technologies: side view assist, forward collision warning/mitigation, lane departure warning/prevention, and vehicle stability control. Estimates accounted for limitations of current systems. Methods: Crash records were extracted from the 2004-08 files of the National Automotive Sampling System General Estimates System (NASS GES) and the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS). Crash descriptors such as location of damage on the vehicle, road characteristics, time of day, and precrash maneuvers were reviewed to determine whether the information or action provided by each technology potentially could have prevented the crash. Results: Of the four technologies, side view assist had the greatest potential for preventing large truck crashes of any severity; the technology is potentially applicable to 39,000 crashes in the United States each year, including 2000 serious and moderate injury crashes and 79 fatal crashes. Vehicle stability control is another promising technology, with the potential to prevent or mitigate up to 31,000 crashes per year including more serious crashes - up to 7000 moderate-to-serious injury crashes and 439 fatal crashes per year. Vehicle stability control could prevent or mitigate up to 20 and 11 percent of moderate-to-serious injury and fatal large truck crashes, respectively. Forward collision warning has the potential to prevent as many as 31,000 crashes per year, including 3000 serious and moderate injury crashes and 115 fatal crashes. Finally, 10,000 large truck crashes annually were relevant to lane departure warning/prevention systems. Of these, 1000 involved serious and moderate injuries and 247 involved fatal injuries. Conclusions: There is great potential effectiveness for truck-based crash avoidance systems. However, it is yet to be determined how drivers will interact with the systems. Actual effectiveness of crash avoidance systems will not be known until sufficient real-world experience has been gained. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Teoh E.R.,Insurance Institute for Highway Safety
Traffic Injury Prevention | Year: 2011

Objective: Overbraking and underbraking have been shown to be common factors in motorcycle crashes. Antilock braking systems (ABS) prevent wheels from locking during braking and may make riders less reluctant to apply full braking force. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of ABS in fatal motorcycle crashes. Methods: Motorcycle drivers involved in fatal crashes per 10,000 registered vehicle years were compared for 13 motorcycle models with optional ABS and those same models without the option during 2003-2008. Motorcycles with optional ABS were included only if the presence of the option could be identified from the vehicle identification number. Results: The rate of fatal motorcycle crashes per 10,000 registered vehicle years was 37 percent lower for ABS models than for their non-ABS versions. Conclusion: ABS appears to be highly effective in preventing fatal motorcycle crashes based on some early adopters of motorcycle ABS technology. © 2011 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source

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