Fangrat J.,Instytut Techniki Budowlanej
Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences: Technical Sciences | Year: 2016
The combustion process is described and analysed based on the experimental results in the context of building fire safety. Data are obtained by means of five standard methods: ISO 5657 ignitability test, ISO 5657 cone calorimeter, ISO 9705 room corner test, EN ISO 1716 small calorimeter, and EN ISO 1182 small furnace. Various categories of building products were tested: cellulose based products (particle boards, plywoods), solid wood, floor coverings, concrete, ceramics, insulations (thermal and/or acoustic), boards (wall/ceiling), mortars, adhesives, and thin coatings. The studied products exhibited very different fire properties from non-combustible to easily combustible. In order to more effectively differentiate non-combustibles and combustibles within building products, the modified heat of combustion was calculated using all test results according to EN ISO 1716 and EN ISO 1182. The revision of criteria for Euro class A1 and A2 is proposed to obtain more realistic reaction-to-fire evaluation. In conclusion, it is advised to use single limit for heat of combustion for A1 and A2 Euro class. The proposed approach for modified heat of combustion is a convenient tool for the fast and cost-effective initial test method for non-combustibility evaluation and seems to be the proper method for distinguishing between non-combustibles and combustibles within building products. It is a better reflection of the real physical process of combustion than the current one. The third A1 criterion is questionable, regarding time to auto-ignition in EN ISO 1182 cylindrical furnace. The measurement for gross heat of combustion by EN ISO 1716 method is proposed for all Euro classes of building products with different limit values.
Szewczak E.,Instytut Techniki Budowlanej |
Piekarczuk A.,Instytut Techniki Budowlanej
Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences: Technical Sciences | Year: 2016
The paper refers to the importance of test results uncertainty in the assessment of the construction product performance. Uncertainty understood as dispersion attributed to any value which is result of the tests, calculations or other evaluations, occurs at every level of assessment (material, product, construction). Authors presented the various approaches to uncertainty estimation, especially in situation of small number of tests results which is characteristic for testing of construction products. Effects of uncertainty on final assessment of construction product was analyzed using the example of bearing capacity of thin-walled structure obtained by numerical calculation. Different values of material tests uncertainty resulting from different approaches to its assessment was taken into account. It was demonstrated that the difference in the results of strength tests of a material, which falls within the limits of uncertainty, may result in a very significant difference in the evaluation of a structure.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: CSA | Phase: Energy | Award Amount: 3.00M | Year: 2015
The Concerted Action EPBD IV, supporting transposition and implementation of Directive 2010/31/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 May 2010 on the energy performance of buildings, is an activity which aims to foster exchange of information and experience among Member States and participating countries with regards to the implementation of the specific Community legislation and policy on the energy performance of buildings. It involves the national authorities implementing the Directive, or those bodies appointed and entrusted by them to do so. It is carried out under the coordination of Danish Energy Agency, DEA. The CA consortium is composed of organisations designated by all 28 Member States plus Norway. The CA is financed by the EUs Horizon 2020 Programme. The CA is the continuation of the first Concerted Action, CA EPBD, which ran from January 2005 to June 2007, then continued as the CA EPBD II from December 2007 until November 2010 and then CA EPBD III from March 2011 to October 2015. The CA IV will organise 4 CA Plenary meetings and some supporting activities over a period 30 months or approximately one meeting every 7-8 months, similar to the CA III. The work will be organised in Central Teams, which includes: a) 3 Core Teams on New Buildings, Existing Buildings and Certification & Quality of Inspection; b) 3 Cross-Cutting teams on Technical Elements, Policy & Implementation and Compliance, Capacity & Impact; c) 2 central functions on Collaboration with other actors and Internal & External Communication; and some additional functions and supporting measures. For each Central Team, issues are addressed on which the Directive does not require harmonised national implementation but where coordinated implementation would increase the impact of the Directive and reduce the implementing costs.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: ENV.2009.3.1.5.2 | Award Amount: 4.88M | Year: 2010
The overall objective of OPEN HOUSE is to develop and to implement a common European transparent building assessment methodology, complementing the existing ones, for planning and constructing sustainable buildings by means of an open approach and technical platform. OPEN HOUSE will develop a transparent approach able to emerge collectively in an open way across the EU. This approach will be communicated to all stakeholders and their interaction and influence on the methodology will be assured in a democratic way. The baseline will be existing standards (both CEN/TC 350 and ISO TC59/SC17), the EPBD Directive and its national transpositions, and methodologies for assessing building sustainability at international, European and national level.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: EeB.NMP.2013-2 | Award Amount: 6.55M | Year: 2013
H-House is aiming at the development of a number of building components for modern society where awareness for environmental aspects and living comfort are not compromised but complementing each other. The concept of H-House aims at components for the building envelope and components for the interior applied to both new buildings and for renovation. The purpose of an adequate building envelope is protection against moisture ingress, heat loss in winter, excessive heating in summer and noise. Components for the interior should be able to buffer heat and humidity peaks and prevent pollutants and noise. Solutions for both components for building envelope and components for the interior have to be durable, energy-efficient and affordable. Therefore, H-House will propose innovative sustainable faade and partition walls based on earthen materials, optimised cementitious materials with modified surfaces and wooden/cellulose materials. An innovative modification of the listed materials with additions of energy-saving and air purifying aerogel granulates will create optimal conditions for living. The concept of H-House covers chemical and physical activity of the developed building materials, their embodied energy, suitability in different environments, durability, cost-efficiency and long-term improvement of energy efficiency of buildings. The complementary consortium has a strong industrial dominance (9 partners) and 3 research institutes.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: EeB.NMP.2013-1 | Award Amount: 4.95M | Year: 2013
There is a vastly growing demand for increased energy efficiency, safety and improved health of the buildings we live and work in. These demands need to be addressed by a mostly SME oriented building industry, which traditionally responds sluggish to technological advancement. This is partially due to restrictive building codes, which all too often delay new developments but also because the cost and time pressure on the building sector gives SMEs not much room for technological development and the implementation of innovation. The SESBE consortium, consisting of three SMEs, four industrial and five research partners, addresses this and will provide new solutions for lightweight, energy efficient and safe faade elements. For the first time nanomaterials and nanotechnology are suggested for this type of application. It will be used as a tool to custom design functional and performance properties of faade sandwich elements for new constructions and half elements for refurbishment of existing buildings as well as a new type of sealing tape and intumescent coating for fire protection. It is highly expected, the new solutions will have a significant impact on the building sector, not only commercially and societal but also giving impulses to SMEs to invest more in innovation and to partner-up with competent research partners whenever possible. This approach could be a role model for the partnership of research, industry and SMEs in achieving the mutual goal of making housing sustainable, energy efficient, affordable, safe and healthy.
BUILDING UP - Multi-stakeholder, Cross-sectorial, Collaborative long term Research & Innovation Road Map to overcome Technological and Non-technological barriers towards more energy-efficient buildings & districts
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: NMP.2010.4.0-5 | Award Amount: 1.35M | Year: 2011
The strategic objective of BUILDING UP project is to create an effective coordination of ETPs and major initiatives whose SRAs and activities address energy efficiency in the built environment from an NMP perspective, to identify and review the needs in terms of long term research and innovation. To achieve this, six ETPs, namely ECTP (European Construction Technology Platform), Suschem (Sustainable Chemicals), EUMAT (European Advanced Material Platform), Textile ETP (European Technology Platform for the Future of Textile and Clothing), ESTEP (European Steel Platform), FTP (Forest Technology Platform), including their national platforms, have joined forces with other relevant initiatives such as the ERANET ERACOBUILD in order to build a collaboration framework which, pioneered in this CSA under the NMP theme, will be an effective demonstrator to draw guidelines and policy recommendations for the engagement of the public and private sectors in the area of Energy Efficient buildings, preparing the ground for any future implementation beyond 2013 through relevant European and National public and private (industrial) research initiatives. Indeed the main differentiator of this Coordination Action versus the running EeB PPP is that we are targeting a much long term scenario well beyond 2013, outside the scope of the European Economic Recovery Plan. Addressing COMMON NEEDS AND CHALLENGES will pave the way towards the development of radically new products and services enabled by NMP technologies while ensuring that all the necessary bottlenecks and gaps at technological, non-technological and programme level are properly addressed for enhanced sustainability, competitiveness and employment, the key socio-economic challenges for a knowledge based and eco-innovative society in the 21st century.
Czarnecki L.,Instytut Techniki Budowlanej |
Cement, Wapno, Beton | Year: 2012
Sustainable development is one of the leading civilization idea. This term means such a development that satisfies the present needs without a limitation of the possibility of satisfying the needs in the future. Sustainable development in construction is particularly important, as this branch of the industry is consuming enormous amounts of mass and energy. In practice, it means the demand to keep economy progress but with a reduce of a matter (energy + mass) consumption and provides environmentally friendly building, which reduces or even eliminates harm of our natural environment. It sounds like Utopia but is very beautiful idea and to some extent - necessity. In thermodynamic categories it means: low-energy and low-entropy buildings. A new research area has been created by this idea. The concept of "exergy" - the useful part of energy - is discussed as an environmental measure from a thermodynamical point of view. Environmental, social, and economic indicators for assessment of sustainability of construction elaborated by European Standard Committee TC350 are shortly presented. A lot is done by cement producers to reduce the global carbon footprint, in particular, to replace coal with waste having a calorific value equivalent to (fossil) fuel and by making blended cement where parts of clinker are replaced with supplementary cementing materials (SCMs). However, cement is a bulk product that should cover a wide range of applications and serve different customers, giving limitations on clinker replacements. The principles of making concrete construction more sustainable are discussed in details along with the importance of making concrete more durable in a sustainability context. A shift a paradigm from "Durability through Strength" into "Strength through Durability" in the context of EN 206 is analysed. After 12 years of the EN 206 using, it is clear that the standard specified the useful tools to control the concrete durability. Recently, this is a topic of particular topicality due to the European Regulation No 305/2011 of the European Parliament and of the Council (9 March 2011) laying down harmonised conditions for the marketing of construction products and repealing Council Directive 89/106/EEC; it establishes those requirements on sustainability as the fundamental construction requirements. Routes, making concrete more sustainable, are defined and discussed in the paper: partially replacing portland cement in concrete with larger amounts of supplementary cementing materials (SCMs) than usual or with combinations of SCMs leading to synergic reactions, enhancing strength and durability: high volume fly ash as replacement of cement; leaner concrete with less cement per cubic meter utilizing plasticizers, between others. Finally, the impact of nanotechnology is discussed for achieving future concrete with even higher degree of sustainability while maintaining adequate performance. Implementation of the idea of sustainable development in the construction industry will be a source of scientific and engineering inspiration for many years to come.