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Wiatkowski M.,University of Opole | Rosik-Dulewska C.,Instytut Podstaw Inzynierii Srodowiska PAN | Wiatkowska B.,Agencja Restrukturyzacji i Modernizacji Rolnictwa
Rocznik Ochrona Srodowiska | Year: 2011

The paper presents characteristics of a small retention dam reservoir Nowaki on the Korzkiew River, in Opolskie Voivodeship. The Nowaki reservoir is one of 9 small retention dam reservoirs operating in the Opolskie Voivodeship. The reservoir functions were described and some remarks concerning operational problems were presented. Particular attention was paid to the quality of water in the reservoir. Preliminary results of the analyses of the quality of water flowing into the reservoir, outflowing and water stored in the reservoir were discussed. The measurements were carried out in 2008. The performed water quality analyses showed that due to N-NO3 -, N-NH4 +, water temperature, pH, electrolytic conductivity the waters did not exceed the limit values defined for class I. As far as total suspended solids are concerned the exceedence of limit values defined for class II was recorded. It was also observed that the water from the Nowaki reservoir was not euthrophic and sensitive to such pollutants as nitrogen compounds from agricultural sources. The analyses of water from the reservoir showed that among the investigated water quality indicators the most unfavorable conditions for the existence of fish were caused by nitrites and total suspended solids, the values of which exceeded the values defined for fish. Due to the values of total suspended solids the quality of the analyzed water does not meet the requirements defined for water used in inland water basins, either. It was concluded that for the efficient use of the Nowaki reservoir proper agricultural and water-sewage management in the reservoir catchment should be ensured. The paper shows that the present technical state of the reservoir is faultless. The final conclusion is that water quality analyses and hydrological and meteorological measurements in the Korzkiew catchment and the Nowaki reservoir should be continued. This could contribute to the improvement of water management and reduction of unfavorable effects of hydro-meteorological phenomena and potential water pollution.

Nocon W.,Silesian University of Technology | Barbusinski K.,Silesian University of Technology | Nocon K.,Instytut Podstaw Inzynierii SRodowiska PAN | Kernert J.,Instytut Podstaw Inzynierii SRodowiska PAN
Ochrona Srodowiska | Year: 2013

The paper discusses potential use of changes in load of suspended solids and co-transported trace metal ions to define sectors of the river where increased sedimentation occurs as river bottom deposits. Therefore, flow rate of the river was being determined as well as content of total suspended solids and of selected metal ions (Zn, Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, Cr, Ni, Fe) in suspended solids and bottom sediments. Changes in the load of suspended solids and of metals with suspended solids found along the course of the river (Klodnica, Upper Silesia) were estimated. It was established that under similar hydraulic conditions the load of metals associated with suspended solids was a function of change in the load of suspended matter. The results of the research allowed determination of sectors of the Klodnica River where sedimentation of the major part of suspended solids is observed and where the number of metal ions in the bottom sediments is increased. This will enable defining sectors of small and medium-sized rivers that require certain measures to be taken in order to improve their ecological state.

Barbusinski K.,Silesian University of Technology | Nocon W.,Instytut Podstaw Inzynierii Srodowiska PAN
Ochrona Srodowiska | Year: 2011

The paper reports on the changes in the concentrations of heavy metals (Zn, Pb, Cu, Ni, Cr, Cd, Mn, Fe) measured in the bottom sediments of the river Klodnica in 2004 and 2006. The study has produced the following findings. According to the LAWA classification, the values of the nickel and chromium content determined in the bottom sediments did not exceed the values measured in the geochemical background. The concentrations of lead, copper and zinc were indicative of moderate contamination, whereas the concentration of cadmium showed that the bottom sediments of the Klodnica were severely contaminated. The rise observed in the iron and manganese content of the bottom sediments was associated with the wastewater discharge from coal mines. This finding indicates that the problem of reducing the impact of mining operations on the quality of the river water has taken on a sense of urgency. In 2006, the cadmium content measured in the bottom sediments was higher than in 2004, which suggests an increased accumulation of this metal in the organisms of plants and animals. The results of the study make it clear that heavy metal concentrations in the bottom sediments of the Klodnica river should be monitored on a regular basis.

Pistelok F.,Instytut Podstaw Inzynierii Srodowiska PAN | Ficek A.,Instytut Podstaw Inzynierii Srodowiska PAN | Stuczynski T.,SGS EKO Projekt Spolka Z O.o. | Wiera B.,SGS EKO Projekt Spolka Z O.o.
Ochrona Srodowiska | Year: 2014

Cellular ATP (cATP) content allows estimation of total number of microorganisms present in water. The information thus obtained enables determination of influence of water treatment processes and biofilm growing on the pipe walls on microbial contamination of pipeline water. Three small water supply systems located in North-Western Poland (efficiency ranging from 80 to 500 m3/d) were selected for research. Physicochemical and microbiological water quality indicator values, the latter obtained with culture methods, complied with current standards. However, results of cATP content determination in water samples did not lead to such unambiguous conclusions. According to water purity classification by the ATP test manufacturer, none of the water samples from the three water supply systems tested complied with 'good' water quality standards; part of the samples was classified as poor quality water. cATP content analysis demonstrated that filtration process in the water stations tested should be verified and special care should be taken at primary filtrate discharge to sewage system. Most likely, these are decisive factors contributing to the biofilm formation on the pipe walls and secondary water contamination.

Jablonska M.,Instytut Podstaw Inzynierii Srodowiska PAN | Kostecki M.,Instytut Podstaw Inzynierii Srodowiska PAN | Szopa S.,Instytut Podstaw Inzynierii Srodowiska PAN | Lyko A.,Instytut Podstaw Inzynierii Srodowiska PAN | Michalski R.,Instytut Podstaw Inzynierii Srodowiska PAN
Ochrona Srodowiska | Year: 2012

Determined were the concentrations of selected inorganic arsenic and chromium ions in the water and bottom sediments of three Upper-Silesian dam reservoirs (Lake Plawniowickie, Lake Rybnickie and Lake Goczalkowickie). The lakes perform diverse functions and are characterized by a different degree of anthropogenic pressure. Speciation of arsenic and chromium was carried out using an HPLC chromatograph coupled with an ICP-MS detector. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of the speciation of inorganic chromium and arsenic forms in lake water and bottom sediments detected signifi cant differences in the concentrations of these analytes at various states of oxidation. The concentrations of arsenic and chromium forms were found to range from limits of detection up to several tens mg/m3. The results of the study have revealed marked differences in the content of these forms of chromium and arsenic between the water samples and the bottom sediment samples, depending on the season of the year, extent of oxygenation and nature of the reservoir.

Rogula-Kozlowska W.,Instytut Podstaw Inzynierii Srodowiska PAN | Klejnowski K.,Instytut Podstaw Inzynierii Srodowiska PAN | Rogula-Kopiec P.,Instytut Podstaw Inzynierii Srodowiska PAN | Blaszczak B.,Instytut Podstaw Inzynierii Srodowiska PAN | And 2 more authors.
Rocznik Ochrona Srodowiska | Year: 2013

The analysis of elemental composition of ambient dust can help not only evaluate the environmental and health effects due to the air pollution but also identify emission sources. However, the whole number of projects and studies on concentrations and elemental composition of ambient (especially fine) dust hardly concern these issues in Eastern Europe. Neither is the chemical (and elemental) composition of the submicron ambient dust in Poland well recognized. There is also a shortage of data from long-term and parallel studies of the elemental composition of separate dust fractions. In the heavily polluted areas, the elemental composition of atmospheric aerosol and the dependence of elemental composition of particles on their size can appear essential for analyzing the toxicity of dust and its environmental effects. This study presents the results of determination and comparison of the elemental composition of four fractions of ambient dust in Zabrze (Poland), an urban area typical of the exposure of the Upper-Silesian Agglomeration population to the polluted air. The samples of the four dust fractions (fine: ≤=1 μm - PM1, 1-2.5 μm - PM1-2.5, coarse: 2.5-10 μm - PM2.5-10 and 10-40 μm - PM10-40) were collected during eight months (January-August 2009) with the use of a DEKATI-PM10 cascade impactor. All the dust samples (204 samples) were analyzed using a PANalytical Epsilon 5 spectrometer (EDXRF - energy dispersive X-Ray fluorescence spectroscopy). The minimum, maximum and average concentrations, for winter (January- April, heating season) and summer (May-August, non-heating season), of 38 elements from each of the four examined dust fractions were calculated. The influence of anthropogenic sources on the ambient concentrations of elements from each dust fraction was determined by analyzing the enrichment factors (EF). The strength of linear relationships (Pearson's linear correlation coefficients) between each pair of elements was determined separately for fine and coarse dust. The highest ambient concentrations were assumed by two nonmetals - sulfur and chlorine; their concentrations were significantly lower in summer than in winter. Both sulfur and chlorine were mainly bound onto the finest particles. Their share in the coarse dust, even in summer, was small. They came from anthropogenic sources. Ambient, typical crustal, Si, Al, Fe, Mg, K, Ca, Ti, Sr, Rb in Zabrze came from natural sources regardless of the fraction they were bound to. Small seasonal variations in ambient concentrations of these elements or some of the concentrations higher in summer than in winter confirmed the fact. A significant portion of the mass of the crustal elements, especially of Al, Si and Fe, was concentrated in the coarse fractions. However, the mass distribution among the dust fractions indicates some of them (K, Ca, Mg, Rb, Sr) as coming partly from anthropogenic sources. It particularly concerns their part bound to fine dust in winter. The mass contribution of crustal matter to ambient dust was about 6.8 in winter and 9.7% in summer; the contribution to PM1 was half of it. Almost all remaining 27 elements (except for Mn, Zn, Ge, Sb, La) had the ambient concentrations not greater than 100 ng·m-3, usually higher in winter. The average mass shares of each of these 27 elements in PM1, PM1-2.5, PM2.5-10 and PM10-40 were different and depended on the season of a year. Co, Cu, Zn, Pb and As were cumulated mostly in fine dust, while V, Mn, Co, Cr, Ni, Ag, Cd and Ba in coarse dust. The former, in fine dust, were assumed to be rather of anthropogenic origin and closely associated with combustion. The later originated partly from combustion (especially in winter) but their greater part was secondary and came from road dust. The largest contributors to the mass of the elements in fine dust in Zabrze are domestic furnaces and car engines, i.e. combustion of fossil fuels, biomass, and waste. The possible effect of industrial sources was also identified. The elemental composition of coarse dust is due to re-suspension of soil and road dust, and to a lesser extent, to municipal emission.

Ciesielczuk T.,Instytut Podstaw Inzynierii Srodowiska PAN | Opolski U.,Instytut Podstaw Inzynierii Srodowiska PAN | Rosik-Dulewska C.,Instytut Podstaw Inzynierii Srodowiska PAN
Rocznik Ochrona Srodowiska | Year: 2013

Most of used mineral and organic sorbents are hazardous waste and, therefore, in accordance with actual law regulations must be converted thermally or deposited in the special landfill for hazardous waste. Up to now both methods are expensive and burning methods are still watch as a controversial method. The optimal solution would be sorption materials that could be used repeatedly, without the need for costly and cumbersome lanfilling. Sorbents, which due to their properties could be used repeatedly, are MSW composts generated from mixed or only organic municipal waste. In this study we have investigated the rate of degradation of motor oil on MSW waste composts from two different technologies. Comparison of degradation efficiency, was calculated in comparison to the commercial sorbents. As sorbents were used organic (Peatsorb) and mineral (EcoDryPlus) materials which are in common use and available on the market. Both commercial sorbents were different in case of pH value and amount of biogenic elements and organic matter. Composts used in experiment also were characterized with high EC value, what could be a factor of microbial activity inhibition. During the experiment the total amount of standard diesel oil available on every petrol station and individual n-alkanes with carbon chain length from C8 to C19 was determinate. For comparison additionally was determined content of C20 and C21 n-alkanes. During the experiment, there were observed more intensive oil degradation processes on waste composts in comparison to commercial sorbents. Microflora which use nalkanes as a carbon source, ensured quick (noted after 22 days of the experiment), reduction of the amount of hydrocarbons contamination in the samples, and thus the possibility of re-use of compost as a sorbent. The observed rapid degradation process, indicates the direction of the recovery of compost waste, used previously as a sorbent for the removal of petroleum contaminants (diesel oil). Undoubtedly, this is a cheaper way than the thermal incineration or storage.

Rogula-Kozlowska W.,Instytut Podstaw Inzynierii Srodowiska PAN | Rogula-Kopiec P.,Instytut Podstaw Inzynierii Srodowiska PAN | Klejnowski K.,Instytut Podstaw Inzynierii Srodowiska PAN | Blaszczyk J.,Instytut Podstaw Inzynierii Srodowiska PAN
Rocznik Ochrona Srodowiska | Year: 2013

Ambient particulate matter (PM) is a component of the natural environment and a certain number of particles that varies with time, having many different properties which also change over time, is constantly present in the air. It can be assumed that the scope of environmental effects of PM is the broadest among all air pollutants: it affects the human health, climate, ecological conditions and visibility. Organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) are the two most important components of suspended dust. The continuously increasing road traffic intensity is highly correlated with increasing concentrations of both of these components in the air of urbanized areas all over the world. In spite of this, the amount of data on OC and EC concentrations in Poland is still insufficient, especially in the case of areas located close to busy roads. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of vehicular traffic on ambient concentrations of PM-related OC and EC, and their mass size distribution in a typical urban area of the Upper Silesia. PM samples were collected simultaneously at two sites located in the Katowice city. One of the selected measurement points was situated in the city centre and characterized so-called urban background. The second measurement point, located near the A4 motorway, was in the area directly exposed to the influence of traffic emission. Dust was sampled during two measurement periods (2-10 August and 15-22 September 2011) using thirteen-stage impactors - DEKATI Ltd. (DLPI, Dekati Low Pressure Impactor). Analysis for the content of OC and EC in the collected dust samples was carried out by means of a thermo-optical method with the use of a Sunset Laboratory OC/EC carbon analyzer. During the entire measurement program strict adherence to the rigorous requirements for quality control of the obtained results was ensured. Concentrations of PM1-, PM2.5- and PM10-related OC and EC in Katowice, near the A4 motorway, were close to values obtained in other parts of the world in different measurement periods, at traffic sites of similar characteristics. Also values of the concentration ratio of OC bound to PM10 and PM2.5 (or PM1) were similar to quantities determined in different locations. In Katowice, due to municipal emission and poor quality of vehicles travelling the roads, also the coarse fraction of dust was enriched in EC. This situation is unusual in comparison to other regions. The effect of emission from engines of the cars travelling the motorway manifested itself mainly by elevated EC concentrations compared to the urban background site. For TSP the EC concentration was higher, five times in the beginning of August and two times in the second half of September. The largest differences between EC concentrations in the location near the motorway and in the urban background area were observed for the PM0.06-0.108, PM0.108-0.17 and PM0.17-0.26 fractions. In both measurement periods, at the traffic site in Katowice, the maxima of mass size distribution of EC were in the diameter range characteristic for soot emitted from Diesel engines (0.108-0.26μm). The fact that the influence of exhaust emission from vehicles travelling the motorway on EC concentrations was more pronounced in the second half of September than in the first half of August, was caused by larger EC emission from various sources in Katowice during the period following summer holidays. Concentrations of organic carbon bound to TSP in both measurement periods in Katowice was only 10% higher in the urban traffic site than in the urban background site. The largest differences between OC concentrations near the motorway and in the urban background are observed in the ranges 0.06-0.17 and 1.0-2.5 μm. Maxima of the mass size distribution of PM-related OC, both at the urban traffic site and at the background site, were similar in both measurement periods. It was inferred that the small differences between OC concentrations in the traffic and the background site are caused by the process of secondary aerosol formation, less intensive near the motorway than in the urban site.

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