Instytut Paleobiologii PAN

Twarda, Poland

Instytut Paleobiologii PAN

Twarda, Poland
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Majewski W.,Instytut Paleobiologii PAN
Polish Polar Research | Year: 2013

Twenty one core tops from the central part of Pine Island Bay and nearby Ferrero Bay were collected in early 2010. They originate from a poorly studied area of the Amundsen Sea influenced at greater depths by relatively warm Circumpolar Deep Water. Almost all samples came from water-depths between 550 and 900 m and yield benthic foraminiferal assemblages of moderate variability with a significant decrease in calcareous forms with increasing water-depth. In total, 93 benthic taxa, belonging to 71 genera, are identified at the species level. They share a greater percentage of common species with the Ross Sea than with South Shetland Islands, most likely due to stronger climatic dissimilarity with the latter. Interestingly, the assemblages from Pine Island Bay, share the greatest numbers of taxa with assemblages described from Lützow-Holm Bay in East Antarctica, where the influence of Circumpolar Deep Water has been also recognized.


Majewski W.,Instytut Paleobiologii PAN
Polish Polar Research | Year: 2010

After several years of research, the foraminiferal fauna of Admiralty Bay (King George Island, South Shetland Islands) has become the most studied fiord in West Antarctica with respect to foraminifera. As such, it provides actualistic data for better understanding of paleoenvironmental records from this dynamically changing area. Over a few years, the bay was systematically sampled down to 520 m water depth, for multichambered and monothalamous benthic foraminifera, including softwalled allogromiids often overlooked in former studies. Altogether, 138 taxa were identified, and three new taxa described. This paper aims to integrate these results, put them into a broader perspective, and supplement them with information that was not presented to date. Most notably, a record of the vertical distribution of Rose Bengal stained foraminifera below the sediment surface and the proportions of soft and robustlytestate forms at different sites are described.


Dzik J.,Instytut Paleobiologii PAN
Bollettino della Societa Paleontologica Italiana | Year: 2011

The morphological series composed of large xenusiids of the Chengjiang fauna of China and the basal anomalocaridids Pambdelurion and Kerygmachela from the Sirius Passet fauna of Greenland is supplemented with another xenusiid lobopodian, Siberion lenaicus gen. et sp. nov., from the Early Cambrian Sinsk Formation of central Siberia. Reduction and ventral bending of the proboscis in Siberion and the Chengjiang Megadictyon and Jianshanopodia may be a synapomorphy uniting these representatives with the anomalocaridids. Throughout the series, the raptorial appendages became larger and more sclerotised, while the gill-like structures on the trunk appendages were transformed from their originally tubular shape into a pinnate form and may eventually have given rise to the wide anomalocaridid flaps. Such a tendency can be rooted in the Aysheaia-like xenusians, that have raptorial appendages associated with a prominent proboscis. This results in a scenario of almost complete transition from early lobopodians to ancestral arthropods within the xenusian-anomalocaridid segment of the phylogenetic tree.


Roniewicz E.,Instytut Paleobiologii PAN
Acta Palaeontologica Polonica | Year: 2011

The first description of early Norian coral fauna from the Northern Calcareous Alps (Dachstein Plateau and Gosaukamm), Austria, is presented: 31 scleractinian species from 24 genera (including three corals not formally determined), and three hexanthiniarian species belonging to two genera. The stratigraphical position of the main part of the fauna discovered in the South Dachstein Plateau at the Feisterscharte is determined by means of the conodont Epigondolella quadrata (Lacian 1); single finds are from the horizons with Epigondolella triangularis and Norigondolella navicula (Lacian 3), and one close to the horizon with Epigondolella cf. multidentata (Alaunian 1). Rare corals from the Gosaukamm are from the Lacian 1 and Alaunian. Five species are described as new: Retiophyllia vesicularis, Retiophyllia aranea, Margarosmilia adhios, Hydrasmilia laciana; one new genus and species from the family Coryphylliidae, Margarogyra hirsuta; one new genus and species, Thamnasterites astreoides, cannot be assigned to a family. Two hexanthiniarian species, Pachysolenia cylindrica and Pachydendron microthallos, known exclusively from the Tethyan lower Norian, represent stratigraphically valuable species. A regularly porous coral from the family Microsolenidae, Eocomoseris, which up to now has only been known from the Jurassic and Cretaceous, is here identified from the Triassic strata (originally described as Spongiomorpha [Hexastylopsis] ramosa). Predominant taxa show solitary and phaceloid (pseudocolonial) growth forms and an epithecal wall; pennules-bearing corals are common. Carnian genera and genera typical of the Lacian and Lacian-early Alaunian prevail; a hydrozoan genus Cassianastraea has also been encountered as well as a scleractiamorph coral, Furcophyllia septafindens). The faunal composition contrasts with that of well known late Norian-Rhaetian ones, the difference being observed not only at the generic but also at the family level. The post-early Norian change in coral spectrum documents the turnover of the coral fauna preceding that at the Triassic/Jurassic boundary.


Balinski A.,Instytut Paleobiologii PAN
Acta Palaeontologica Polonica | Year: 2012

In the classic section across the Silurian-Devonian boundary at Dnistrove (Podolia, Ukraine) the brachiopod fauna has never been studied in detail. This paper presents results of research on brachiopods from this important locality and time interval. Bed-by-bed collecting has enabled the detailed distribution of brachiopod taxa through the boundary beds to be revealed. Generally, the reference section at Dnistrove yields rather scarce but often well preserved brachiopods. Dayla bohemica and Dnestrina gutta can be regarded as characteristic species for the uppermost Silurian. A relatively high-diversity but low-abundance brachiopod fauna occurs in the lowest 1.8 m of the earliest Devonian. Only three forms have been found to cross the Silurian-Devonian boundary: the strophomenide Plectodontu (Plectodontu) murlae puntherae subsp. nov., the atrypide Gruciunellu (Sublepida) paulula sp. nov., and the spiriferide Howellellu (Howellella) latisinuata. A relatively narrow brachiopod-rich interval at 5.5 m above the Silurian-Devonian boundary yields 16 brachiopod species which probably indicate a setting near the lower limit of the photic zone equivalent to the Benthic Assemblage 3-4 boundary. Two new species and one new subspecies are described: Skenidioides tatyunae, Plectodontu (Plectodonta) marlae puntherae, and Gruclanella (Sublepidu) paulula. Copyright © 2012.


Colonies of boring ctenostome bryozoans and microborings of "fungi" that occur in the Early Devonian (Lochkovian, ∼416 Ma) of Podolia, western Ukraine, have soft-tissue preserved by phosphatization. These comprise exceptional three-dimensional body walls of feeding zooids with probable parietal muscles inserted on the cystid wall, and setigerous collars twisted within the vestibulum. The presence of collars in this Early Devonian ctenostomes proves the existence of this feature for more than 416 Ma of ctenostome evolution. Phosphatized remains of the zooid walls are interpreted as relicts of the originally chitinous cystid walls. This is the first record of soft-tissue fossilization in a boring bryozoan. The presence of cavities (specialized heterozooids), empty or filled with laminated calcium phosphate, is also documented in bryozoans for the first time. These cavities are interpreted as "store-rooms" in which the bryozoans accumulated nutrients. The new taxon, Podoliaporu doroshevi gen. et sp. nov. is described. In additional, phosphatised fungi-like endoliths co-occur with bryozoans. Copyright © 2012.


Dobrowolska K.,Instytut Paleobiologii PAN
Palaontologische Zeitschrift | Year: 2013

Detailed study of the ultrastructures on the cortical lists of retiolitids occurring after the lundgreni event has been undertaken. The extremely well preserved material from the Gołdap borehole of Poland (Baltica) enables classification of clathrial lists into two types-with single and double seams. Significantly different seam development is observed between two groups of retiolitids occurring before and after the lundgreni event. The study of seams and increments on the lists enables reconstruction of the membrane arrangement of the rhabdosomes. Reconstruction of the proximal ends, the arrangement of the ancora umbrella, and the layout of the proximal ventral and lateral orifices of five genera, Neogothograptus, Holoretiolites, Plectograptus, Spinograptus, and Quattuorgraptus n. gen., is presented. The new genus Quattuorgraptus is separated from Spinograptus because of the different development of the ancora umbrella and the width of the lateral walls of the rhabdosome. © 2012 The Author(s).


Dzik J.,Instytut Paleobiologii PAN
Malacologia | Year: 2010

Because of a serial arrangement of supposed pedal muscles and its high-conical shell, Hypseloconus from the Late Cambrian to Early Ordovician of North America is generally believed to be a monoplacophoran relative of cephalopods. The distinctive pattern of muscle attachments and shell form indicates its close relationship to roughly coeval Siberian Kirengella and several other genera classified in the order Kirengellida. Newly collected material from the Early Ordovician of Siberia shows that the bivalved Angarella, with its ventral valve cementing to a hard substratum, is closely similar to Kirengella and Hypseloconus in the arrangement of shell muscles. Permanently fixed to its substratum was also another probable member of the group, Pygmaeoconus. Musculature of Angarella in some aspects resembles that of the Early Cambrian mobergellans with phosphatic shells, but in the calcitic shell structure it is similar to the craniopsid brachiopods. Irrespective of whether the kirengellids are brachiopods or not, they should be removed from considerations on the ancestry of cephalopods. The alternative to Hypseloconus as a candidate for cephalopod ancestry is the Early Cambrian Turcutheca, an enigmatic mollusk with endogastrically curved and laterally compressed conch and relatively large subspherical embryonic conch, in both aspects resembling the earliest ellesmeroceratid nautiloids.


Majewski W.,Instytut Paleobiologii PAN
Acta Palaeontologica Polonica | Year: 2010

The response of planktonic foraminifera to changing oceanographic conditions during Middle Miocene Climate Transition (MMCT) ∼14 million years ago (Ma) at ODP Site 747 (Kergeulen Plateau) is investigated. Faunal changes are presented in the background of sea surface temperature (SST) estimates and multi-taxon δ18O and δ13C data presented in other studies. Four faunal transitions are distinguished between 15.0 and 12.2 Ma. The first two affected only a limited number of taxa, and do not lead to large-scale assemblage reorganizations. They are only minor assemblage changes within the pre-MMCT fauna. The first (14.514.4 Ma) is marked by a reduction in the Globorotalia zealandica plexus in favor of the Globorotalia praescitula plexus, coupled with the first signs of increased seasonality. The second (14.314.2 Ma) is characterized by recovery and diversification of the G. zealandica plexus and an increase in Turborotalita quinqueloba in response to further enhanced seasonality. The third faunal transition across the Middle Miocene Shift (MMS) in δ 18O (13.913.8 Ma) affects almost all planktonic foraminifera, leading to dismembering of the pre-MMCT assemblage. These changes were triggered by the SST drop by ∼7°C, followed by reduced sea-surface salinity following the MMS, which favored the opportunistic Neogloboquadrina continuosa. Its dominance spans the transitional period (13.813.2 Ma), during which several planktonic foraminiferal events gradually shaped the post-MMCT assemblage. The fourth faunal threshold took place during the hiatus in the ODP Hole 747A record spanning 13.212.5 Ma. It is expressed by the establishment of an assemblage dominated by Globorotalia praescitula and Globigerina bulloides in association with diminishing of the low-salinity surface layer. The two dominant taxa exhibit well-defined morphologies, much different from their earlier relatives. The microperforate foraminifera show relatively few morphological changes, probably due to their morphological conservatism. Their changes are thought to herald the large foraminiferal transformations, especially in case of the third and fourth faunal transition thresholds.


Balinski A.,Instytut Paleobiologii PAN
Acta Palaeontologica Polonica | Year: 2010

Retained colour pattern on the shells of Plectodonta sp. from the earliest Devonian of Podolia (Ukraine) is the first finding for strophomenide brachiopods and the oldest among articulate brachiopods. The colour pattern in Plectodonta sp. is composed of small, round, brownish spots scattered rather irregularly on the ventral valve only. This may suggest that the described pattern probably performed a protective function through disruptive camouflage against visual systems of potential predators. The occurrence of the colour pattern in Plectodonta sp. exclusively on the ventral valve strongly suggests that these brachiopods lived with the patterned (and convex) ventral valve upwards and the patternless concave dorsal valve facing to the underlying substrate. It thus contradicts a general assumption that concavo-convex brachiopods lived with their convex valves resting on the sediment.

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