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Kraków, Poland

Gonera M.,Instytut Ochrony Przyrody | Wiewiorka J.,Emerytowany geolog kopaln soli w Wieliczce i Bochni | Charkot J.,Muzeum Zup Krakowskich | Bukowski K.,AGH University of Science and Technology | And 2 more authors.
Przeglad Geologiczny | Year: 2011

Stratotypes are indispensable to the correct usage of litho- and chronostratigraphy units. Stratotypes sustainability is the crucial factor. As the sustainability of the Chodenice Beds stratotype became in risk the searching for the substitution site of this type section had been undertaken. Micropaleontological and petrological hallmarks of the unit have been considered and perfectly analogical deposits have been found near by - in the Bochnia Salt Mine. Two of the mine corridors where Chodenice Beds crop out have been selected. The sites are protected as elements of the geocoservation net of the Bochnia Salt Mine, nominated as geological site no. 4 and 21.

Mineral resources of the Ponidzie region, whose usage played an important role in the economic and cultural history of Poland, or whose geological surveys contributed to the development of geological sciences include: Pińczów limestones, gypsum, sulphur, oil and salt (although salt does not occur in this region). The Pińczów limestones have been commonly used for construction and sculpture since the Early Middle Ages, particularly intense during the Renaissance and Baroque periods as well as in the mid-20th century. Also the tradition of gypsum usage dates back to the beginning of the Polish State, which is proved by Early Medieval monuments in Wislica. Although the sulphur extraction in the Czarkowy mine took place only during the 19th century, this mine was famous as the only one in the Russian Empire. In turn, the discovery of oil near the village of Wójcza in the second half of the 19th centur, caused geological discussion on the sources of this product in the Fore-Carpathian Depression. However, the most interesting is the salt prospection in the 18th and 19th centuries. Owing to the lack of salt in the region, the survey was not successful, but contributed to the comprehensive geological recognition of the region as well as provided springs of mineral water which are still used or has stimulated growth of unique halophilic plant communities.

Jankowski L.,Panstwowy Instytut Geologiczny | Margielewski W.,Instytut Ochrony Przyrody
Przeglad Geologiczny | Year: 2014

The article presents a new concept of structural control on the Outer Carpathians relief. The Carpathians' relief development originated in the stage of sedimentary basin deposition (e.g., gravitational positioning of fragments of rock massif), as well as in the compressional stage of the orogen formation, and, finally, in the stage of secondary tectonic deformation, such as: strike-slip faulting, radial extension, and great extensional collapse of the Carpathian massifs. The difference in elevation between the Beskidy Mts. and Carpathian Foothills belt is caused by the structural position of these segments of rock massifs within an accretionary prism formed during the compressional stage. The tectonic elements formed during the earliest stage ofcompression (Magura, Dukla and southern Silesian units forming the High Beskid zone) attain the highest structural and elevation position, whereas the elements included as the last ones to the accretionary prism (Sub-Silesian and Skole units) take a lower topographic position, forming the foothills belt. A concept that gravitational collapse generated back-thrusts and tectonic exhumation of the Carpathian massifs allows us to explain seemingly considerable erosional unroofing of the Carpathian surface, estimated at several kilometres. Alternating position of elevated and lowered mountain ridges (Bieszczady-Beskid Niski-Beskid Wyspowy-Beskid Makowski Mts.) can be explained by their association with a major strike-slip fault. Chaotic complexes frequently occurring in the Carpathians are very important for the relief transformation and development of river network (controlled not only by dislocations, but also by chaotic complexes), as well as for the presence of erosional remnants (isolated hills representing blocks in matrix).

The central (Paleozoic) and the south-western (Permian-Mesozoic) parts of the Holy Cross Mts. region are areas of typical structural morphology controlled by fold-type tectonic structure and lithology. In the northern (Mesozoic) marginal part of the region structural arrangement ofmain relief elements is not so clear due to the block-type tectonics, however, some morphological features, such as the valley network, elongation ofglacial, kame-type landforms and orientation of rock cliffs are related to joint system. The general relief elements of part of the Nida Basin region adjoining the Holy Cross Mts. are of noeotectonic origin, while the subordinate landforms represent typical structural morphology. The role of recent tectonic factor should be also taken into account in the Holy Cross Mts., however, the identification of tectonic influence on the current relief of this region is very difficult.

The paper presents three examples of interpretations of geological events and paleogeographic and paleoenvironmental conditions, made on the basis of studies of karst forms in Devonian carbonate rocks of the świȩ tokrzyskie (Holy Cross) Mountains, central Poland. The first study concerns paleokarst forms in two sites: Wietrznia and Jaworznia which record the Late Permian relief evolution and its tectonic rejuvenation at the beginning of the Triassic period. The next two interpretations concern the Cenozoic karst forms. Analysis of spatial development of subsurface karst systems made possible to determine the erosional base stabilization levels during the Neogene. The uppermost karst horizon (Lagow) was most probably related to the level of one of the transgressions in the Fore-Carpathian marine basin. In turn, the study of sand sediments filling the karst forms, particularly analysis of roundness and shape of sand grains, enables to distinguish five types of sand grains of different genesis, among which are grains originated from various local weathered rocks as well as pyrogenic particles. Based on this analysis, the extent of Lower Triassic cover was determined and karst development during the Quaternary period was assessed, as well as some suggestions on the Neogene paleoenvironment were formulated. karst, Permian, Triassic, Cenozoic, paleogeography, tectonics, świȩtokrzyskie (Holy Cross) Mts. © Copyright by Państwowy Instytut Geologiczny 2013.

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