Instytut Nauk Geologicznych PAN

Twarda, Poland

Instytut Nauk Geologicznych PAN

Twarda, Poland

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Birkenmajer K.,Instytut Nauk Geologicznych PAN | Gedl P.,Instytut Nauk Geologicznych PAN | Worobiec E.,Instytut Botaniki PAN
Polish Polar Research | Year: 2010

Shallow-marine deposits of the Krabbedalen Formation (Kap Dalton Group) from Kap Brewster, central East Greenland, yielded rich dinoflagellate cyst and pollen-spore assemblages. Previously, this formation yielded also rich mollusc and foraminifer age-diagnostic assemblages. A Lower Oligocene age of the Krabbedalen Formation seems to be supported by the dinoflagellate cyst assemblage analysis, while the pollen-spore assemblages point to a wider stratigraphic age range within Oligocene-Middle Miocene.


Szulc J.,Jagiellonian University | Racki G.,Instytut Nauk Geologicznych PAN | Racki G.,University of Silesia
Przeglad Geologiczny | Year: 2015

Lithostratigraphic division of the Upper Silesian Keuper continental succession belongs to abandoned matters, even if newly-discovered sites with unique vertebrate faunas highlight an increasing request to more precise designation of their stratigraphic setting. As a result of multidisciplinary grant and with a guide use of new borehole sections, a major lithostratigraphic unit is formally proposed for the middle Keuper (i.e., above the Schilfsandstein; Stuttgart Formation in Stratigraphische Tabelle von Deutschland, 2002), based on previously inaccurately used unit, Grabowa Formation of Bilan (1976). The re-defined Formation of Variegated Mudstones and Carbonates from Grabowa includes Upper Gypsum Beds and Steinmergelkeuper in traditional scheme from Germany (=Weser and Arnstadt Formations), and generally correlates with the Norian stage. Two bone-bearing horizons (Krasiejów and Lisowice) are placed within the unit, which is completely subdivided in three members: Ozimek (mudstone-evaporate), Patoka (marly mudstone-sandstone) and Woźniki (limestone).


Krajewski K.P.,Instytut Nauk Geologicznych PAN | Gonzhurov N.A.,Polar Marine Geological Research Expedition | Laiba A.A.,Polar Marine Geological Research Expedition | Andrzej T.,Biologii Antarktyki PAN
Polish Polar Research | Year: 2010

The Panorama Point Beds represent a subfacies of the Early to Middle Permian Radok Conglomerate, which is the oldest known sedimentary unit in the Prince Charles Mountains, MacRobertson Land, East Antarctica. This unit records clastic sedimentation in fresh-water depositional system during the early stages of development of the Lambert Graben, a major structural valley surrounded by crystalline highlands in the southern part of Gondwana. It contains common siderite precipitated through early diagenetic processes in the swamp, stagnant water, and stream-flow environments. There are two types of siderite in the Panorama Point Beds: (1) disseminated cement that occurs throughout the sedimentary succession; and (2) concretions that occur at recurrent horizons in fine-grained sediments. The cement is composed of Fe-depleted siderite (less than 90 mol % FeCO3) with an elevated content of magnesium, and trace and rare earth elements. It has negative δ 13CVPDB values (-4.5 to-1.5‰).The concretions are dominated by Fe-rich siderite(morethan 90 mol % FeCO3), with positive δ 13CVPDB values (+1 to +8‰). There are no noticeable differences in the oxygen (δ18OVPDB between-20 and -15‰) and strontium (87Sr/86Sr between 0.7271 and 0.7281) isotopic compositions between the siderite types. The cement and concretions developed in the nearsurface to subsurface environment dominated by suboxic and anoxic methanic degradation of organic matter, respectively. The common presence of siderite in the Panorama Point Beds suggests that fresh-water environments of the Lambert Graben were covered by vegetation, starting from the early history of its development in the Early Permian.


Zelazniewicz A.,Instytut Nauk Geologicznych PAN | Oberc-Dziedzic T.,Wrocław University | Fanning C.M.,Australian National University | Protas A.,Poszukiwania Nafty i Gazu | Muszynski A.,Adam Mickiewicz University
Tectonophysics | Year: 2016

The Trans-European Suture Zone (TESZ) links the East and West European Platforms. It is concealed under Meso-Cenozoic cover. Available seismic data show that the lower crustal layer in the TESZ is an attenuated, ~200 km wide, SW margin of Baltica. The attenuation occurred when Rodinia broke-up, which gave rise to evolution of the thinned, thus relatively unstable margin of Baltica. It accommodated accretions during Phanerozoic events. We focus on acid magmatism, specifically granitoid, observed close to the SW border of the TESZ in Poland. This border is defined by the Dolsk Fault Zone (DFZ) and the Kraków-Lubliniec Fault Zone (KLFZ) on which dextral wrenching developed as a result of the Variscan collision between Laurussia and Gondwana. The granitoids at the DFZ and KLFZ were dated at ~300 Ma. In the Variscan foreland that overlaps the TESZ, orogenic thickening continued to ~307-306 Ma, possibly contributed to melting of the thickened upper continental crust (εNd300 = -6.0 to -4.5) and triggered the tectonically controlled magmatism. The wrenching on the TESZ border faults caused tensional openings in the basement, which promoted magmatic centers with extrusions of rhyolites and extensive ignimbrites. The Chrzypsko-Paproć and Małopolska magmatic centers were developed at the DFZ and KLFZ, respectively. The magmatic edifices commenced at ~302 Ma with relatively poorly evolved granites, which carried both suprasubduction and anorogenic signatures, then followed by more evolved volcanic rocks (up to 293 Ma). Their geochemistry and inherited zircons suggest that the felsic magmas were mainly derived from upper crustal rocks, with some mantle additions, which included Sveconorwegian and older Baltican components. The complex TESZ, with Baltica basement in the lower crust, was susceptible to transient effects of mantle upwelling that occurred by the end of the Variscan orogeny and resulted in an episode of the "flare-up" magmatism in the North German-Polish Basin. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


Zelazniewicz A.,Instytut Nauk Geologicznych PAN | Jastrzcbski M.,Instytut Nauk Geologicznych PAN | Redlinska-Marczynska A.,University Adama Mickiewicza | Szczepanski J.,Wrocław University
Geologia Sudetica | Year: 2014

During the 2002 meeting of Czech, Polish and Slovak tectonic community in Żelazno, the Sudetes, the Central European Tectonic Studies Group (CETeG) was established. 12 years ago, participants of the meeting made an excursion to the eastern part of the Orlica-Śnieznik Dome (OSD), which was focused on a variety of gneisses with inserts of (U)HP eclogites and various enclaves. The 2014 meeting brought members of the CETeG to the OSD again and an accompanying field excursion was dedicated mainly to evolution of metasedimentary and metavolcanogenic rocks in the region. This paper is a short review of the results of the studies undertaken in the OSD by different research groups in the last 12 years. The review is set against a background of what we knew about the geology of the dome in 2002. A significant progress was made. P-T paths were determined for mica schists and marbles as well as for metarhyolites originated from the continental crust and metabasites derived from the mantle. New light was shed on the origin of various types gneisses in the OSD and their genetic and structural relationships. A plethora of isotopic studies helped to better constrain timing of igneous and metamor-phic events in the Orlica-Śnieznik complex. Ages clustered around 350-340 Ma are repeatedly obtained, yet scarcer older ages up to 390 Ma and their geological significance are open to debate. Tectonic evolution of the dome was revised and new geodynamic concepts were proposed. However the new data has created some new problems and some old problems are still to be resolved in the future.


Zelazniewicz A.,Instytut Nauk Geologicznych PAN | Kromuszczynska O.,Instytut Nauk Geologicznych PAN | Biegala N.,Instytut Geologii UAM
Acta Geologica Polonica | Year: 2013

The Orlica-Snieznik Dome (OSD), NE Bohemian Massif, contains in its core several gneiss variants with protoliths dated at ~500 Ma. In the western limb of the OSD, rodding augen gneisses (Spalona gneiss unit) are mainly L>S tectonites with a prominent stretching lineation. The few quartz LPO studies have produced somewhat discrepant results. Reexamination of these rocks revealed that texture formation was a protracted, multistage process that involved strain partitioning with changing strain rate and kinematics in a general shear regime at temperatures of the amphibolite facies (450-600°C). Quartz c-axis microfabrics show complex yet reproducible patterns that developed under the joint control of strain geometry and temperature; thus the LPOs are mixed features represented by pseudogirdle patterns. Domainal differences in quartz microfabrics (ribbons, tails, quartzo-feldspathic aggregate) are common in the Spalona orthogneisses but uncommon in the sheared migmatitic gneisses. In the latter rocks, the constrictional strain was imposed on the originally planar fabric defined by high-temperature migmatitic layering. The constrictional fabric of the Spalona gneisses may have developed in the hinge zones of kilometer-scale folds, where the elongation occurred parallel to the fold axes. Other occurrences of rodding gneisses throughout the Orlica-Snieznik Dome are thought to occupy similar structural positions, which would point to the significance of large-scale folds in the tectonic structure of the dome.


Birkenmajer K.,Instytut Nauk Geologicznych PAN | Krajewski K.P.,Instytut Nauk Geologicznych PAN | Pecskay Z.,Hungarian Academy of Sciences | Lorenc M.W.,Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences
Polish Polar Research | Year: 2010

Nine samples of basic (dolerite, gabbro) intrusions collected at Bellsund, South Spitsbergen, have been K-Ar dated. Three dates, between 87.8 and 102.9 Ma, obtained from dolerite sills which intrude Carboniferous and Permian deposits in Van Keulenfjorden point to a Cretaceousage of intrusive activity (DiabasoddenSuite). The K-Ar dates obtained from dolerite and gabbro which intrude Upper Proterozoic metasedimentary terrane of Chamberlindalen form two groups: the dates between 97.1 and 178.6 Ma point to a Mesozoic age of the intrusions (Diabasodden Suite); the dates from a tectonized gabbroid (280.9-402.0 Ma) might point to a Late Palaeozoic age of the intrusion. No K-Ar dates which would indicate a Proterozoic age of the basic intrusions were obtained.


Pyrite framboids occur in loose blocks of plant-bearing clastic rocks related to volcano-sedimentary succession of the Mount Wawel Formation (Eocene) in the Dragon and Wanda glaciers area at Admiralty Bay, King George Island, West Antarctica. They were investigated by means of optical and scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and isotopic analysis of pyritic sulphur. The results suggest that the pyrite formed as a result of production of hydrogen sulphide by sulphate reducing bacteria in near surface sedimentary environments. Strongly negative δ34SVCDT values of pyrite (-30 - -25 ‰) support its bacterial origin. Perfect shapes of framboids resulted from their growth in the open pore space of clastic sediments. The abundance of framboids at certain sedimentary levels and the lack or negligible content of euhedral pyrite suggest pulses of high supersaturation with respect to iron monosulphides. The dominance of framboids of small sizes (8-16 μm) and their homogeneous distribution at these levels point to recurrent development of a laterally continuous anoxic sulphidic zone below the sediment surface. Sedimentary environments of the Mount Wawel Formation developed on islands of the young magmatic arc in the northern Antarctic Peninsula region. They embraced stagnant and flowing water masses and swamps located in valleys, depressions, and coastal areas that were covered by dense vegetation. Extensive deposition and diagenesis of plant detritus in these environments promoted anoxic conditions in the sediments, and a supply of marine and/or volcanogenic sulphate enabled its bacterial reduction, precipitation of iron mono-sulphides, and their transformation to pyrite framboids.


Mozer A.,Instytut Nauk Geologicznych PAN | Pecskay Z.,Hungarian Academy of Sciences | Krajewski K.P.,Instytut Nauk Geologicznych PAN
Polish Polar Research | Year: 2015

Radiometric and geochemical studies were carried out at Red Hill in the southern part of King George Island (South Shetland Islands, northern Antarctic Peninsula) on the Bransfield Strait coast. The rock succession at Red Hill has been determined to represent the Baranowski Glacier Group that was previously assigned a Late Cretaceous age. Two formations were distinguished within this succession: the lower Llano Point Formation and the upper Zamek Formation. These formations have stratotypes defined further to the north on the western coast of Admiralty Bay. On Red Hill the Llano Point Formation consists of terrestrial lavas and pyroclastic breccia; the Zamek Formation consist predominantly of fine to coarse tuff, pyroclastic breccia, lavas, tuffaceous mud-, silt-, and sandstone, locally conglomeratic. The lower part of the Zamek Formation contains plant detritus (Nothofagus, dicotyledonous, thermophilous ferns) and numerous coal seams (vitrinitic composition) that confirm the abundance of vegetation on stratovolcanic slopes and surrounding lowlands at that time. Selected basic to intermediate igneous rocks from the succession have been analysed for the whole-rock K-Ar age determination. The obtained results indicate that the Red Hill succession was formed in two stages: (1) from about 51-50 Ma; and (2) 46-42 Ma, i.e. during the Early to Middle Eocene. This, in combination with other data obtained from other Baranowski Glacier Group exposures on western coast of Admiralty Bay, confirms the recently defined position of the volcano-clastic succession in the stratigraphic scheme of King George Island. The new stratigraphic position and lithofacies development of the Red Hill succession strongly suggest its correlation with other Eocene formations containing fossil plants and coal seams that commonly occur on King George Island. © 2015 Polish Academy of Sciences.


New evidence of Eocene preglacial environments has been found on the southern coast of Ezcurra Inlet on King George Island, South Shetland Islands, West Antarctica. Plant remains (trunks, leaves, detritus) and carbonaceous seams and beds occur in sedimentary strata in a 4 km long Cytadela outcrop of the Point Thomas Formation. They are an evidence for the presence and diversity of terrestrial vegetation in the northern Antarctic Peninsula region. The forests were composed mostly of Podocarpaceae-Araucaria-Nothofagus, with an undergrowth of hygrophilous and thermophilous ferns, and grew on volcanic slopes and surrounding lowland areas of King George Island during breaks in volcanic activity. The succession that crops out at Cytadela provides a record of changing climatic conditions from a warm and wet climate with extensive vegetation to a much drier climate with limited vegetation and ubiquitous weathering of volcanic bedrock. The geochemical indices of weathering (CIA, PIA and CIW) have narrow and relatively high value ranges (76-88), suggesting moderate to high chemical weathering under warm and humid climate conditions. The decrease in humidity and the decline in plant life through the succession can be related to the gradually cooling climate preceding development of the Oligocène ice cover across the Antarctic continent.

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