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The frequency of occurrence of Physiological Subjective Temperature (PST) ranges derived from MENEX 2005 model has been applied to describe spatial variability of thermal sensation in man. "Cold" is the most frequent subjective sensation in Poland (54% to over 60% within the whole year). "Very cold" sensation in January can be noticed in 10% of cases in the western Poland and it increases from the west to the east (to over 35%). "Very hot" can be noticed mostly in July and increases from the north to the south (1% to over 6%). The greatest frequency of occurrence of "comfortable" sensation within the whole year and in July falls on the Baltic coast, in October - on the south Poland. Radiation according to latitude, air circulation, the Atlantic and the Baltic Sea surface temperature, cooling wind impact, relief and elevation are the main factors that forms subjective sensation in man in Poland.

Kazmierczak B.,Wroclaw University of Technology | Kotowski A.,Wroclaw University of Technology | Wdowikowski M.,Instytut Meteorologii I Gospodarki Wodncj
Ochrona Srodowiska | Year: 2014

Time series of the archival pluviographic data from 4 meteorological stations of the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management (IMGW, located at altitudes of 122 to 356 m above sea level) were analyzed. The analysis covered the period of last 60 years (1954-2013) including both annual and seasonal (May-October) rainfall data. In order to assess trends in precipitation amount, both linear regression and Mann-Kendall test were applied to statistical studies. For all the analyzed measurement stations a decrease in annual precipitation amount in the period 1954-2013 was demonstrated, for Legnica and Opole at a significance level above 75%. Moreover, a decrease in the seasonal precipitation amount was noticed, however at a significance level of less than 75%. Further research is needed in order to confirm the expected changes in rainfall amount and intensity in the future.

The principal goal of the study was to determine circulation types with respect to the occurrence of extreme values of air temperature in Poland. A comparison between different available classifications was also performed. Maximum and minimum daily temperatures for the 56-year study period (1951-2006) obtained from 54 weather stations were used. Detailed calculations were performed for the summer (June-August) and winter (December-February) seasons. Extreme values were selected with respect to probability distribution bases. The study showed that circulation types with an anticyclonic ridge were the most important for extremely hot days in the summer, while extremely low temperatures in the winter were usually associated with anticyclonic types with an easterly airflow. A special effort was made to identify the classification scheme yielding the best accuracy in evaluating extremes.

This study consists of meteorological and hydrological measurements results conducted in the Polar Urals from July 11th to August 2nd 2008. The main aim was to determine influence of the meteorological conditions on the discharge and water chemistry in the periglacial basin. Course of air temperaturȩ, global solar radiation, cloudiness, discharge, specific electrolytic conductance, temperature and chemistry of water were examined. Results show that mean discharge measured at the hydrometric station highly depends on the snow cover melting. During fieldwork, intensive exhaustion of snow cover was determined by stable circulation of air masses from east direction. Rarely occuring circulation from the west influenced on more intensive snow cover exhaustion due to heavy rain events. In spite of lower activity of chemical denudation processes, glaciated part of basin occupied by Obruchev Glacier was relatively active in compare with other parts of basin. On contrary, lowest activity of chemical denudation processes was observed in the non-glaciated cirque. Generally low activity of chemical denudation processes was related to low area of the moraine cover deposited since the end of Last Glacial Maximum.

Wypych A.,Jagiellonian University | Henek E.,Instytut Meteorologii I Gospodarki Wodncj
Przeglad Geofizyczny | Year: 2012

The main aim of the study is to find the best spatialization method to describe spatial differentiation of climatic water balance (CWB) in Poland. Monthly mean values of air temperature and precipitation totals from 60 synoptic stations as well as monthly totals of solar radiation (23 measuring points) were taken into consideration. Source material covered period 1985-2006. Regarding the prior research as well as data availability the potential evapotranspiration data was calculated by Turc formula. CWB modeling was conducted with two methods simultaneously: simple and multiply linear regression (with latitude, altitude and distance from the coast line as variables) and map algebra. Validation showed map algebra as the best spatialization method. Nevertheless the obtained results proved also that except for the method local factors are of the great importance in CWB modeling especially in the mountains and at the coast. To optimize the method it is necessary to reduce the research scale using more in-situ data what would enable to include more local variables as land form and land cover into the analyses.

The article presents general conditions and perspectives for development of hydrotechnical infrastructure in Poland, as compared to the European Union water policy, which take into account demands of sustainable development. The hydrotechnical infrastructure analyzed in the article includes technical projects associated with flood control, water power engineering and water transport. Poland is in a particular situation because, due to historical determinants, including partition of its territory and war damages, the development of water management processes which may be observed in western European countries proceeded at a slower pace or simply did not take place at all. The current water policy stemming from the Water Framework Directive should be based on harmonization of economic growth and environmental requirements. In addition, cohesive sectoral planning documents are required. It is also imperative that water management plans for river basins take priority over other water management plans.

Pianko-Kluczynska K.,Instytut Meteorologii I Gospodarki Wodncj
Scientific Review Engineering and Environmental Sciences | Year: 2015

Precipitation conditions (i.e. the sum of precipitation and number of days with precipitation), which exist in a given season and area, are very important for agriculture. The aim of the study was to verify the thesis that the atmospheric circulation based on Lityński's indices and types of circulation, can determine the most likely precipitation conditions, in future seasons, in selected synoptic stations in Poland. Precipitation conditions were specified using several classifications: of five classes based on the ratio of total precipitation (number of days with precipitation to their seasonal many-years averages (Meteorological and Hydrological Bulletin, IMWM), of seven classes for total precipitation, based on Standardized Precipitation Index - SPI (often used in studies of agro-meteorological), and of three classes system, which is used in long-term forecasts (this classification, denoted KLIM, describes either total precipitation and the number of days with precipitation). Seasonal circulation was described by reference of percentiles for the season of the year to the percentiles of the reference period 1981-2010. Percentiles were determined for the values of the indices and the number of days with selected type or its component. The author conducted two reconstructions of precipitation characteristics using a simple probabilistic Bayesian classifier (for types and circulation indices as explanatory variables). The aim of this work was to verify whether the classification according to Lityński is useful in forecasting of seasonal drought and flooding. The hypothesis has been confirmed that the atmospheric circulation delivers the information about current and future precipitation conditions but the knowledge of other atmospheric processes should be taken into account in forecasting models.

Jancewicz A.,Instytut Meteorologii I Gospodarki Wodncj | Dmitruk U.,Instytut Meteorologii I Gospodarki Wodncj | Kwiatkowska A.,Instytut Meteorologii I Gospodarki Wodncj
Ochrona Srodowiska | Year: 2011

AOX (adsorbable organically bound halogens) is a parameter determining the overall content of organohalogens, i.e. organic compounds bound with chlorine, bromine or iodine in different elements of the natural environment. In the study reported on in this paper, AOX concentrations were determined in samples of surface water and wastewater (both municipal and industrial), collected within the area of the Mazovian Voivodship. It has been found that the overall organohalogen content of the surface water samples did not exceed the value of 160 mgCl -/m 3. According to the water quality classification that is in effect in Germany, riverine water at the measuring sites was characterized by significant or increased levels of pollution from organohalogens. The measured values of the AOX parameter ranged from 22 mgCl -/m 3 to 262 mgCl -/m 3 in domestic sewage and from 82 mgCl -/m 3 to 167 mgCl -/m 3 in industrial wastewater. These concentrations meet the requirements imposed in Poland on the quality of waste-waters being discharged into surface water, soil, or a sewer system.

The article discusses the issue of runoff data control in the hydrological nodes applied at the level of the Main Centre after the preparation of the data by the regional branches of the IMGW-PIB. A modification of previously used methods is presented. This modification involves the analysis of runoff coefficient in the node's catchment in place of runoff assessment on the base of similar catchment runoff data and water balance error examination. The advantages and disadvantages of both methods were pointed out and an example of the calculation for the node the rivers: Vistula, Nidzica, Dunajec rivers and the hydrological nodes of the Vistula river and its tributaries were provided.

This article represents part of the output of the “KLIMAT” research-development project (No. POIG 01.03.01-14-011/08-00) implemented by Poland’s Institute of Meteorology and Water Management (IMGW) and co-financed by the European Regional Development Fund. The full name of the project is: “The impact of climate change on the environment, economy and society (changes, effects and solutions to reducing them, applications for science, engineering practices and economic planning)”. The characterisation of snow-cover duration encompassed beginning and end dates, real and potential period of occurrence and stability. The winter half-year was first identified as the period from August 1 (of a given current year) to July 31 (of the following year). In order to determine relevant indicators, daily data on snow cover from 6.00 GMT were used, these being obtained from selected meteorological stations located in the Polish part of the Sudetes Mountains and their foreland. Some 43 winter seasons (1965/66-2007/08) were considered, with the selection of stations based primarily around the availability of sufficiently long and complete data series. Furthermore, the stations selected – to represent various hypsometric zones in the range – were those that had not been through a change of location over the period of study. Snow cover in the Polish part of the Sudetes Mts. and their foreland display a very high degree of temporal and spatial variability. Marked instability to the length and timing of periods during which snow cover occurs can particularly be observed in the lower part of the Mountains’ altitudinal profile and in the foreland areas. Analysis of results for the mean date of the onset of snow cover on the ground indicates that, with each 100 m increase in altitude, snow cover appears 3.6 days earlier on average. The earliest occurrence of snow is noted on Śnieżka and in the Jakuszyce region, respectively on 4th and 31st October on average. At the other stations in the Mountains, snow tends to fall first in the second or last third of November. The mean date on which snow cover of the ground melts away to nothing displays a 4.8-day delay for each 100 m increase in altitude. Thus, in the summital parts of the Mountains here, the average end date is 30th May; in the Jakuszyce and Międzygórze regions it is on 28th or 18th April respectively; on the lower parts of the slopes the date is within the first third of April; and in the Sudeten foreland as early as in the final third of March. Variability coefficients describing the day of onset of snow cover are found to assume much lower values (4.7÷6.4%) than those relating to the last day on which snow cover remains at a given station (10.0÷23.8%). Furthermore, in the case of the snow-cover final days, values for coefficients are higher at lower altitudes. In the multi-annual period 1951/2-2007/8, it is possible to note a slight downward trend for end dates of snow cover occurrence, which is to say earlier disappearance of snow. Specifically, with each successive 10-year period, the duration of snow cover was shorter by 0.4 days on Śnieżka and by some 3.7 days in Lądek-Zdrój. An analogous regularity was to be observed in regard to the duration of snow cover. The rate at which this duration declined over the study period was found to range between 0.7 days/10 years in the summital zones and foreland and 4.5 days/10 years on the lower parts of slopes. The variability associated with this parameter is thus inversely proportional to altitude. The real time over which snow persists is thus visibly shorter than the potential period over which snow cover might occur. In general, this difference between potential and actual snow cover duration is greater at lower-altitude stations. Exceptions were, however, to be noted in the 2005/6, 1995/6, 1969/70 and 1962/3 winter seasons, during which snow cover was actually more prolonged at the low-altitude stations (Jelenia Góra, Zgorzelec) than on the peal of Mt. Śnieżka (whose name means snow). Overall, snow cover in the Polish part of the Sudetes (away from the summital zone of Śnieżka) has been characterised by decreasing persistence over time. The trends identified for the parameters analysed only achieve statistical signifi- cance (at p<0.05) in the case of snow-cover final dates and potential durations in Lądek- Zdrój, as well as the duration coefficient in Zgorzelec. The presented results of the analysis of snow conditions along a hypsometric profile characterising the Polish part of the Sudetes and their foreland constitute a key element to a regional assessment of the current climate in Poland. If combined with the results of an analysis of causal meteorological and morphological factors the findings from the work described here may be used to assess snow conditions for different kinds of skiing and winter tourism. Additionally, the results of analysis regarding fluctuations of snow conditions may serve in determining the degree to which observed global and regional trends towards increasing air temperature affect parameters like the duration of snow cover. They may also offer a background for a variety of research in such fields as environmental protection, forestry, tourism, spatial planning, etc. © 2015 Polska Akademia Nauk. All rights reserved.

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