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The principal goal of the study was to determine circulation types with respect to the occurrence of extreme values of air temperature in Poland. A comparison between different available classifications was also performed. Maximum and minimum daily temperatures for the 56-year study period (1951-2006) obtained from 54 weather stations were used. Detailed calculations were performed for the summer (June-August) and winter (December-February) seasons. Extreme values were selected with respect to probability distribution bases. The study showed that circulation types with an anticyclonic ridge were the most important for extremely hot days in the summer, while extremely low temperatures in the winter were usually associated with anticyclonic types with an easterly airflow. A special effort was made to identify the classification scheme yielding the best accuracy in evaluating extremes. Source


Kazmierczak B.,Wroclaw University of Technology | Kotowski A.,Wroclaw University of Technology | Wdowikowski M.,Instytut Meteorologii I Gospodarki Wodncj
Ochrona Srodowiska | Year: 2014

Time series of the archival pluviographic data from 4 meteorological stations of the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management (IMGW, located at altitudes of 122 to 356 m above sea level) were analyzed. The analysis covered the period of last 60 years (1954-2013) including both annual and seasonal (May-October) rainfall data. In order to assess trends in precipitation amount, both linear regression and Mann-Kendall test were applied to statistical studies. For all the analyzed measurement stations a decrease in annual precipitation amount in the period 1954-2013 was demonstrated, for Legnica and Opole at a significance level above 75%. Moreover, a decrease in the seasonal precipitation amount was noticed, however at a significance level of less than 75%. Further research is needed in order to confirm the expected changes in rainfall amount and intensity in the future. Source


The frequency of occurrence of Physiological Subjective Temperature (PST) ranges derived from MENEX 2005 model has been applied to describe spatial variability of thermal sensation in man. "Cold" is the most frequent subjective sensation in Poland (54% to over 60% within the whole year). "Very cold" sensation in January can be noticed in 10% of cases in the western Poland and it increases from the west to the east (to over 35%). "Very hot" can be noticed mostly in July and increases from the north to the south (1% to over 6%). The greatest frequency of occurrence of "comfortable" sensation within the whole year and in July falls on the Baltic coast, in October - on the south Poland. Radiation according to latitude, air circulation, the Atlantic and the Baltic Sea surface temperature, cooling wind impact, relief and elevation are the main factors that forms subjective sensation in man in Poland. Source


Pianko-Kluczynska K.,Instytut Meteorologii I Gospodarki Wodncj
Scientific Review Engineering and Environmental Sciences | Year: 2015

Precipitation conditions (i.e. the sum of precipitation and number of days with precipitation), which exist in a given season and area, are very important for agriculture. The aim of the study was to verify the thesis that the atmospheric circulation based on Lityński's indices and types of circulation, can determine the most likely precipitation conditions, in future seasons, in selected synoptic stations in Poland. Precipitation conditions were specified using several classifications: of five classes based on the ratio of total precipitation (number of days with precipitation to their seasonal many-years averages (Meteorological and Hydrological Bulletin, IMWM), of seven classes for total precipitation, based on Standardized Precipitation Index - SPI (often used in studies of agro-meteorological), and of three classes system, which is used in long-term forecasts (this classification, denoted KLIM, describes either total precipitation and the number of days with precipitation). Seasonal circulation was described by reference of percentiles for the season of the year to the percentiles of the reference period 1981-2010. Percentiles were determined for the values of the indices and the number of days with selected type or its component. The author conducted two reconstructions of precipitation characteristics using a simple probabilistic Bayesian classifier (for types and circulation indices as explanatory variables). The aim of this work was to verify whether the classification according to Lityński is useful in forecasting of seasonal drought and flooding. The hypothesis has been confirmed that the atmospheric circulation delivers the information about current and future precipitation conditions but the knowledge of other atmospheric processes should be taken into account in forecasting models. Source


The article presents general conditions and perspectives for development of hydrotechnical infrastructure in Poland, as compared to the European Union water policy, which take into account demands of sustainable development. The hydrotechnical infrastructure analyzed in the article includes technical projects associated with flood control, water power engineering and water transport. Poland is in a particular situation because, due to historical determinants, including partition of its territory and war damages, the development of water management processes which may be observed in western European countries proceeded at a slower pace or simply did not take place at all. The current water policy stemming from the Water Framework Directive should be based on harmonization of economic growth and environmental requirements. In addition, cohesive sectoral planning documents are required. It is also imperative that water management plans for river basins take priority over other water management plans. Source

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