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Nieae M.,Instytut Gospodarki Surowcami Mineralnymi i Energia Polskiej Akademii Nauk
Przeglad Geologiczny | Year: 2014

Gas in shales occurs as a constituent of rock and its resources can be estimated in a similar way as the metal content in ore deposit. The cutoff gas content in rock is the basic parameter defining deposit boundaries. It is proposed that the cutoffs in gas-bearing rocks are 2 m3 gas/t and 15-m deposit thickness. In case of lack of sufficient data, the deposit boundaries for resources estimation may be delineated in a defined distance from prospecting boreholes, supported by geophysical data, if possible. Discovered gas resources may be evaluated by volumetric methods. For reserve estimation, dynamic methods should be applied based on shale fracturing results. Following the stages of prospecting and exploration, decreasing uncertainty of the deposit resources/reserves evaluation may be expressed by D, C, B and A categories, or with the use of PRMS classification system. Source


Saluga P.W.,AGH University of Science and Technology | Sobczyk E.J.,IGSMIE PAN | Kicki J.,Instytut Gospodarki Surowcami Mineralnymi i Energia Polskiej Akademii Nauk
Gospodarka Surowcami Mineralnymi / Mineral Resources Management | Year: 2015

Indicating the resources and reserves of mineral deposits and disclosing such information to the public domain is an important issue with respect to the merits of doing business in the geological and mining field. Currently in the international sphere there is a system of reporting and classification of solid mineral resources based on the Australian JORC Code. This document, honored by the stock exchanges, presents minimum standards and guidelines necessary to reliably and credibly indicate resources of mineral deposits. The JORC uses two basic categories: resources and reserves, the first of which relates to inventory (balanced resources) of the mineral and the other - to recoverable reserves - that is possible to extract taking into account the currently available technical means and the current economic criteria. The classification system is hierarchical - reserves are a subset of resources. With the gathering of geological information, the latter are distinguished into inferred resources, indicated resources and measured resources, while within the first group there are reserves classified as probable reserves and proved reserves. Measured resources and proved reserves constitute the most recognized parts of the deposits. Following the success of the JORC many countries have developed their own national standards of reporting of resources and reserves. These codes are concentrated within CRIRSCO - Committee for Mineral Reserves International Reporting Standards [solid]. In Poland, the reporting of resources is governed by different acts of law. Polish classification is also hierarchical in nature - from the mass of geological resources it distinguishes so called balanced resources, including so called industrial and non-industrial reserves. Depending on the extent of geological knowledge, resources are presented in five categories of exploration: D, C2, C1, B and A. After deducting losses and taking into account the depletion of resources one can calculate the operational reserves. So far, despite the Russian experiences in this field, Poland has not developed a standard allowing to harmonize the Polish and international system. The content of this article presents a proposal for such a match. © 2015, Polska Akademia Nauk. All rights reserved. Source


Pszonka J.,Instytut Gospodarki Surowcami Mineralnymi i Energia Polskiej Akademii Nauk | Wendorff M.,AGH University of Science and Technology | Kusaj E.,Przedsiebiorstwo Produkcji Materialow Drogowych W Rzeszowie Sp. Z O.O
Biuletyn - Panstwowego Instytutu Geologicznego | Year: 2010

Industrial mineral deposits mined in the Podkarpackie Voivodship of southern Poland are modest in size and of low variety. The best physical-mechanical properties are shown by the Cergowa sandstones (Lower Oligocène) which occur in the southern part of the region and constitute a subdivision of the Carpathian Flysch suite. The Cergowa sandstone, mined in the Lipowica II-1 quarry near Dukla, meets strict quality standards required of crushed stone used in aggregates by the construction industry. The outstanding physical properties result from the mineral composition and diagenetic processes. Dissolution of marginal parts of mineral grains increased the contact surface between corroded grains and the dolomitic-calcitic cement (with an admixture of clay matrix). This resulted in strong cementation of the Cergowa sandstones, which is expressed by very high hardness and resistance of the rock. The output of the Cergowa sandstone and other construction aggregate products mined in the Podkarpackie Voivodship does not meet the market demands, which reflect a continuous growth of the construction industry in the region. Source


Klojzy-Karczmarczyk B.,Instytut Gospodarki Surowcami Mineralnymi i Energia Polskiej Akademii Nauk | Kurek T.,Zaklady Gornicze Trzebionka SA w likwidacji | Mazurek J.,Instytut Gospodarki Surowcami Mineralnymi i Energia Polskiej Akademii Nauk
Biuletyn - Panstwowego Instytutu Geologicznego | Year: 2013

The mining of Zn-Pb ores in the Trzebionka mine made it necessary to drain the deposit. This process led to changes in the groundwater table within the main level of the Triassic aquifer. The aquifer located in the Muschelkalk carbonate and Buntsandstein (Röt) formations constitutes the main groundwater reservoir for the major groundwater basin No. 452 Chrzanów in the impact zone of the mine-pumping cone of depression. Due to the depletion of reserves, mining was terminated in 2009 and the drainage of the pits was stopped. The closed-down Wlodzimierz main shaft was adapted to serve as a piezometer for the observation of the total flooding of the mine, which began in mid-2010 after turning off the main drainage pumping station. Water level measurements and tests of selected physico-chemical parameters of mine waters take place in the piezometer. Based on the results of research conducted in 2010-2012, an analysis of changes in the water chemistry of the Triassic aquifer was conducted in the Wlodzimierz shaft. The changes in the content of sulphates, zinc, lead, pH and conductivity in pit water samples were analysed and compared to the measurements of water-table position in the corresponding periods of time. A comparison of the water-table restoration curve to the curve of sulphate content changes shows that as the level of the water table increases so does the concentration of sulphates. This is most likely related to flooding of the mine and continuous transition of sulphates into the aqueous solution. Source


Pajak L.,Instytut Gospodarki Surowcami Mineralnymi i Energia Polskiej Akademii Nauk | HoLojuch G.,Instytut Gospodarki Surowcami Mineralnymi i Energia Polskiej Akademii Nauk
Biuletyn - Panstwowego Instytutu Geologicznego | Year: 2010

The paper presents the technical and economic conditions that compressor heat pumps have to cope with in the Polish heating systems utilizing geothermal water. Required operating parameters of geothermal installations and the structure of energy consumption used for production of electricity driven heat pumps were taken into consideration. Given the existing restrictions, the terms of energy and economic viability of compressor heat pumps were determined. It was found that the least demanding criterion of effectiveness for compressor heat pumps utilization in Poland is the criterion of primary energy saving effectiveness (taking coal as the reference fuel it is necessary to obtain the annual average COP value above 2.2 - which is fully achievable). A definitely more stringent criterion is the economic viability. It was found that, for the most commonly used conventional fuels, the average COP value must be 5.0-7.7 for coal, 3.3-5.6 for network natural gas with a high methane content, 1.7-2.0 for light heating oil and 1.0-1.4 for network electricity. On this basis, the economic viability of compressor heat pumps for coal is practically unattainable. Source

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