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Grudzinski Z.,Instytut Gospodarki Surowcami Mineralnymi i Energia PAN
Gospodarka Surowcami Mineralnymi / Mineral Resources Management | Year: 2011

The structure of electricity production in Poland has not changed dramatically recently. Approximately 93% of electricity is currently produced from coal and lignite. Environmental charges have a significantly impact on costs of production. This paper analyses the impact of environmental charges influenced by coal quality on the production cost of power generation. A simulation of the impact of coal quality (Q, A, S) on the environmental charges was carried out. The study was extended by the analysis based on improved relationship between coal quality and emission charges. The calculations included also charges related to the NOx, CO and CO2. The results are presented per 1 ton of coal burned and per 1 MWh of electricity produced. Source


Uliasz-Bochenczyk A.,Instytut Gospodarki Surowcami Mineralnymi i Energia PAN
Gospodarka Surowcami Mineralnymi / Mineral Resources Management | Year: 2011

Fly ashes from the combustion of lignite coal are suitable materials for the creation of suspensions in which CO2 is bound by mineral carbonation. Considering their limited economic uses, mineral sequestration, as a stage of the CCS technology in lignite coal power plants, can be a way of recycling them.Mineral sequestration of CO2 was researched using fly ashes from the combustion of lignite coal in the Pa{ogonek}tnów power plant, distinguished by a high content of CaO and free CaO. Research into phase composition confirmed the process of carbonation of the whole calcium hydroxide contained in pure suspensions. The degree of CO2 binding was determined on the basis of thermogravimetric analysis. A rise in the content of CaCO3 was found in the suspensions after subjecting them to the effects of carbon dioxide. Following carbonation the pH is lowered. A reduction in the leaching of all pollutants was discovered in the studied ashes. The results obtained were compared to earlier research of ashes from the same power plant but with a different chemical composition. Research confirmed that water suspensions of ashes from the combustion of lignite coal in the Pa{ogonek}tnów power plant are distinguished for a high degree of carbonation. Source


Lewicka E.,Instytut Gospodarki Surowcami Mineralnymi i Energia PAN
Gospodarka Surowcami Mineralnymi / Mineral Resources Management | Year: 2013

This article reviews the mineralogical and petrographic characteristics of granitoids occurring in four deposits extracted by the Strzeblowskie Mineral Mines of Sobótka, placing particular emphasis on minerals containing iron and other elements which affect the colour of the raw material after firing. For this purpose, microscopic examinations in transmitted light, chemical analyses, and observations in scanning electron microscope (SEM/EDS) were performed. The last of these methods proved to be crucial for the complete identification of mineral phases in the rocks in question. These studies have shown that the main iron-bearing minerals are biotitic-origin chlorite and biotite, light micas (sericite, muscovite), as well as garnets and other heavy minerals (rutile, apatite, epidote, monazite, zirconium, pyrite, titanium-magnetite, sphalerite) present in the form of small grains dispersed in the rock or as larger clusters and fillings in cracks and fissures. The examinations also found that the structure of mineral phases identified in the studied granitoids also contain other colouring elements such as manganese (garnets, chlorites, and micas), thorium and uranium (monazite, xenotime, and zirconium), cerium (monazite), neodymium (monazite, xenotime), and titanium (rutile, titanium-magnetite). The occurrence of these elements may be the cause of differences in L*a*b* colour parameters measured by spectrophotometer for the fired samples, despite a similar or identical content of iron oxide. Confirmation of this hypothesis, however, would require examinations of the rocks' chemical composition for minor and trace elements, in particular the determination of Mn and REE (Ce, Pr, and Nd). Minerals carrying these elements occur in small quantities in the examined raw materials. Source


Poland is a country in which the share of fossil fuels is very high. This share is now 86% and it decreased by 6% when compared to previous year. Taking into account the high share of coal in the power sector, this article addresses the issue of emissivity of coal and its impact on the cost of power generation. Coal combustion involves incurring environmental charges, which level depends, in part, on coal quality. Such compounds as SO2, NOx, CO, CO2, PM and waste disposal are of key importance. Coal products coming into the market may vary significantly in terms of qualitative parameters, what has an impact on the costs of use of the environment. Coal producers may indirectly affect part of the costs due to coal preparation. This applies mainly to emissions of SO2, PM and waste disposal. However, in the case of such gases as NOx, CO and CO2 the reduction is mainly achieved by applying relevant technologies on the coal users' side. Calculations presented in this article show how costs of coal combustion, resulting from the use of the environment, can change depending on coal quality. Calculations were carried out on a wide range of parameters: Q: 18-26 MJ/kg, S: 0.3-1.4%, and A: 11-30%. The results of the calculations may be used for the estimation of the environmental costs as well as for the evaluation of grades of coal supplied to the power sector. The coal purchase contracts include, inter alia, the price of coal of specific quality parameters (Q, A, S). The calculated environmental costs of coal in a wide range of parameters can be also used to adjust the price of delivered coal when there is a difference between contractual agreements and the delivered coal quality. Source


The work includes an analysis of mercury contamination of top soil horizons in the immediate vicinity of transportation routes which may potentially have a negative impact on subterranean waters in porous sediments. Research included areas in the vicinity of the MGWB 141 (impacted by the national road 1, section from Toruń to Chełmża) and the MGWB 150 (impacted by the national road 2, section from Konin to Koło). The conducted studies allow a supposition that the utilisation of transportation routes results in slow cumulating of mercury compounds on the sides of the roads and in soils in the surrounding areas. The total mercury concentration level in the analysed soils generally ranged from 0.03 to 0.04 mg/kg of dry sample mass. If the clay fraction is bigger, the content of mercury increases even further. A significant element of the work is the threat assessment for groundwaters resulting from contaminant migration from top horizons of the soil. Problems associated with the susceptibility of groundwaters to contamination were presented in the aspect of the average time assessment of contaminant migration from the top horizon to the water-bearing horizon, i.e. aeration zone filtration time. It has been assumed that the relatively unthreatened groundwater reservoirs are those which have an average of 25 years for vertical migration of water from the top horizon. The assessment of vertical filtration time follows from the formula applied. The vertical migration time of waters potentially contaminated via the aeration zone was assessed using the Bindeman formula and the Bachmat and Collin formula (used by Witczak and Zurek). The assessment was further supplemented by results obtained using Macioszczyk's suggestion which combines the guidelines in the earlier formulas. The threat of contaminating compounds, and especially mercury, was assessed for selected segments of roads, which had earlier been analysed for the contaminant level in the top horizons. The applied formulas give different values of filtration time through the aeration zone. Considering the conservative water marker migration time, the analysed groundwater reservoirs were threatened no matter which formula was applied. In case of mercury, the level of threat follows from the accepted value of index delay related to sorption processes. Source

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