Instytut Gospodarki Surowcami Mineralnymi i Energia PAN

Kraków, Poland

Instytut Gospodarki Surowcami Mineralnymi i Energia PAN

Kraków, Poland
SEARCH FILTERS
Time filter
Source Type

Tarkowski R.,Instytut Gospodarki Surowcami Mineralnymi i Energia PAN
Przeglad Geologiczny | Year: 2017

The article describes the subject of underground hydrogen storage in the context of energy storage using hydrogen as a carrier, and shows its role in the Polish energy policy. The review of the most recent papers was performed to provide the information about hydrogen properties and options for underground hydrogen storage (salt caverns, depleted hydrocarbons fields, deep aquifers) in Poland. Analysis of the literature indicates small practical experiences in the underground hydrogen storage. The behaviour of underground-stored hydrogen is more complex than expected. Previous results indicate that this option may in future become the preferred solution for storing excess electricity related to the irregular supply from renewable sources. Geological formations can provide the possibility of storing energy on a medium- and long-term time scale. Knowledge of the underground storage of carbon dioxide and other gases will be useful for searching of sites for underground storage of this gas. Due to the planned increasing share of renewable energy in electricity production in Poland, the issue of underground hydrogen storage will become increasingly relevant.


Lewicka E.,Instytut Gospodarki Surowcami Mineralnymi i Energia PAN
Gospodarka Surowcami Mineralnymi / Mineral Resources Management | Year: 2013

This article reviews the mineralogical and petrographic characteristics of granitoids occurring in four deposits extracted by the Strzeblowskie Mineral Mines of Sobótka, placing particular emphasis on minerals containing iron and other elements which affect the colour of the raw material after firing. For this purpose, microscopic examinations in transmitted light, chemical analyses, and observations in scanning electron microscope (SEM/EDS) were performed. The last of these methods proved to be crucial for the complete identification of mineral phases in the rocks in question. These studies have shown that the main iron-bearing minerals are biotitic-origin chlorite and biotite, light micas (sericite, muscovite), as well as garnets and other heavy minerals (rutile, apatite, epidote, monazite, zirconium, pyrite, titanium-magnetite, sphalerite) present in the form of small grains dispersed in the rock or as larger clusters and fillings in cracks and fissures. The examinations also found that the structure of mineral phases identified in the studied granitoids also contain other colouring elements such as manganese (garnets, chlorites, and micas), thorium and uranium (monazite, xenotime, and zirconium), cerium (monazite), neodymium (monazite, xenotime), and titanium (rutile, titanium-magnetite). The occurrence of these elements may be the cause of differences in L*a*b* colour parameters measured by spectrophotometer for the fired samples, despite a similar or identical content of iron oxide. Confirmation of this hypothesis, however, would require examinations of the rocks' chemical composition for minor and trace elements, in particular the determination of Mn and REE (Ce, Pr, and Nd). Minerals carrying these elements occur in small quantities in the examined raw materials.


Grudzinski Z.,Instytut Gospodarki Surowcami Mineralnymi i Energia PAN
Gospodarka Surowcami Mineralnymi / Mineral Resources Management | Year: 2011

The structure of electricity production in Poland has not changed dramatically recently. Approximately 93% of electricity is currently produced from coal and lignite. Environmental charges have a significantly impact on costs of production. This paper analyses the impact of environmental charges influenced by coal quality on the production cost of power generation. A simulation of the impact of coal quality (Q, A, S) on the environmental charges was carried out. The study was extended by the analysis based on improved relationship between coal quality and emission charges. The calculations included also charges related to the NOx, CO and CO2. The results are presented per 1 ton of coal burned and per 1 MWh of electricity produced.


Uliasz-Bochenczyk A.,Instytut Gospodarki Surowcami Mineralnymi i Energia PAN
Gospodarka Surowcami Mineralnymi / Mineral Resources Management | Year: 2011

Fly ashes from the combustion of lignite coal are suitable materials for the creation of suspensions in which CO2 is bound by mineral carbonation. Considering their limited economic uses, mineral sequestration, as a stage of the CCS technology in lignite coal power plants, can be a way of recycling them.Mineral sequestration of CO2 was researched using fly ashes from the combustion of lignite coal in the Pa{ogonek}tnów power plant, distinguished by a high content of CaO and free CaO. Research into phase composition confirmed the process of carbonation of the whole calcium hydroxide contained in pure suspensions. The degree of CO2 binding was determined on the basis of thermogravimetric analysis. A rise in the content of CaCO3 was found in the suspensions after subjecting them to the effects of carbon dioxide. Following carbonation the pH is lowered. A reduction in the leaching of all pollutants was discovered in the studied ashes. The results obtained were compared to earlier research of ashes from the same power plant but with a different chemical composition. Research confirmed that water suspensions of ashes from the combustion of lignite coal in the Pa{ogonek}tnów power plant are distinguished for a high degree of carbonation.


Poland is a country in which the share of fossil fuels is very high. This share is now 86% and it decreased by 6% when compared to previous year. Taking into account the high share of coal in the power sector, this article addresses the issue of emissivity of coal and its impact on the cost of power generation. Coal combustion involves incurring environmental charges, which level depends, in part, on coal quality. Such compounds as SO2, NOx, CO, CO2, PM and waste disposal are of key importance. Coal products coming into the market may vary significantly in terms of qualitative parameters, what has an impact on the costs of use of the environment. Coal producers may indirectly affect part of the costs due to coal preparation. This applies mainly to emissions of SO2, PM and waste disposal. However, in the case of such gases as NOx, CO and CO2 the reduction is mainly achieved by applying relevant technologies on the coal users' side. Calculations presented in this article show how costs of coal combustion, resulting from the use of the environment, can change depending on coal quality. Calculations were carried out on a wide range of parameters: Q: 18-26 MJ/kg, S: 0.3-1.4%, and A: 11-30%. The results of the calculations may be used for the estimation of the environmental costs as well as for the evaluation of grades of coal supplied to the power sector. The coal purchase contracts include, inter alia, the price of coal of specific quality parameters (Q, A, S). The calculated environmental costs of coal in a wide range of parameters can be also used to adjust the price of delivered coal when there is a difference between contractual agreements and the delivered coal quality.


The aim of this study was a preliminary characterization (mineralogical, chemical, textural) of flotation wastes - which are the by-product of zinc-lead concentrate extraction - from the standpoint of their further prospective (experimental) use as sorbents of acid gases (SO 2 and CO 2). The landfill sourced for the wastes used in this study was owned by ZGH "Boles 3aw" in Bukowno. The research material consisted of a sample of flotation wastes taken from alluvial pond No. 1, lying in the southern part of the Western Pond. Characterization of the material selected for testing included the following: basic mineralogical (XRD, SEM-EDS) and chemical analysis (determination of analytical moisture content, loss on ignition, basic chemical composition, and content of trace elements), as well as the identification of basic textural parameters (BET specific surface area and pore size distribution). Mineralogical studies showed that the waste material consisted mainly of carbonate minerals (primarily calcite, dolomite, ankerite) and minerals present in the residuum after ore flotation (primarily galena and sphalerite). The chemical analysis indicated that in analyzed samples, calcium, magnesium, and iron components are predominant. They are conditioned by carbonate minerals which predominate in the studied waste. The most significant trace elements were arsenic, followed by manganese, and then bar - present only in quantities not exceeding 1%. Textural analysis showed that the test material has a low surface area and large particle size. The research suggests that the analyzed materials have poor adsorption properties, although they could be used in desulfurization as well as the neutralization of carbon dioxide (carbonation). However, it is necessary for this purpose to conduct additional studies of heavy metals' leaching in an acidic environment, in addition to applying the admixture of other ingredients to the flotation wastes, such as cement or zeolites, to immobilize hazardous waste components.


An important aspect of an ongoing management process in the mines is to assess the potential of the deposit, its optimal development and its exploitation. This range of issues will undoubtedly cover properly the understood “problem” of waste rock management costs, which accompanies the process of mineral resources exploitation. When analysing the data of waste rock management in the Polish coal mining industry, it can be noted that since 2010 more than 30.0% of total production is represented by extractive waste. Since 2003 an upward trend has also been observed against the coal mining statistics. The thesis of the article reveals an opinion that the effectiveness of the coal mining process is significantly and negatively influenced by the waste rock amount and related costs. The article attempts to verify and quantify the impact of waste rock on economic effectiveness and operating costs of an exemplary coal mine throughout its life cycle. For this purpose, a dedicated simulation model was built based on discount methods, which examined the costs of waste rock derived from both the drifts and long walls. On the basis of simulation, the economic efficiency of new deposits was verified together with the impact of variable quantities (and costs) of waste rock on key economic and financial indicators of the project. The impact of the waste rock costs was tested in the range of coal yield (WUWN) from 50% to 99%. The analysis confirmed that for extremely low values of WUWN, waste rock costs could reach 47.1% of total operating expenses in the analysed mine. At the base level of WUWN (74.6%), the share of the costs of waste rock in the total operating costs is nearly 28.7%. A positive NPV, estimated for the basic values of key decision variables, occurs at the level of WUWN in the range of 75–80%. Risk adjusted discount rate has a dominating impact on the obtained results. For the WUWN at 80.0%, the IRR is higher than the average effective discount rate (RADR = = 12.7% vs. IRR = 13.2%). The results show that the exploitation of waste rock can be, and often is, more expensive than the mining of coal. © 2015 Polska Akademia Nauk. All rights reserved.


Lewicka E.,Instytut Gospodarki Surowcami Mineralnymi i Energia PAN
Gospodarka Surowcami Mineralnymi / Mineral Resources Management | Year: 2015

The article presents the studies of selected feldspar-quartz raw materials coming from four deposits of granitoids located in the Sobótka region, i.e.: Pagórki Wschodnie, Pagórki Zachodnie, Strzeblów I, and Stary £om. The purpose of the research was to determine the reasons for different colour after firing at 1,200°C of samples with a similar content of Fe2O3. The mineralogical characteristics, with particular regard to carriers of iron and other colouring elements, and shortened analysis of chemical composition of the rocks from above mentioned deposits, were conducted in 2011–2012. Those examinations did not give the unambiguous explanation of the reasons for various colours of the samples. Therefore, there was suggested to perform a full chemical analysis on the content of major and trace elements, which could confirm a hypothesis of a higher share of other than iron colouring elements in the samples, including: Mn, Ce, Th, U, and REE. Such an analysis, together with detailed observations in scanning electron microscope (SEM) coupled with measurements by microprobe (EDS) has been performed within the framework of the presented work. Although these studies have shown the presence of transition metals in the samples, however their low contents cannot explain the differentiation in colour. Lack of direct correlation between the quantity of iron present and “L” and “a” colour parameters of the samples may indicate more complex reasons of this phenomenon, i.e. different structural position, valence and coordination, in which iron cations occur in each sample, which can be simultaneously affected by ions of transition metals, rare earths and actinides, detected in the structure of minerals in individual samples. Their presence can promote the phenomenon of absorption resulting in a colour change. © Instytut Gospodarki Surowcami Mineralnymi i Energia Polskiej Akademii Nauk 2013.


Uliasz-Bochenczyk A.,AGH University of Science and Technology | Mokrzycki E.,Instytut Gospodarki Surowcami Mineralnymi i Energia PAN
Gospodarka Surowcami Mineralnymi / Mineral Resources Management | Year: 2013

Polish power industry uses coal or lignite as basic fuels. That is why this industry is the biggest emitter of CO2 in the country. As a result of electricity and heat production appears some waste - fly ash, which while in the state of suspension can be used for CO2 sequestration by mineral carbonization. The mineral carbonization as a method to lower the reduction of CO2 is especially interesting while using the waste. The article presents the estimation of lowering the CO2 emission in the power industry with the use of water suspensions of energy waste. The results of researches on the level of CO2 absorption by the waste-water suspension and emission from coal burning in the energy industry were used to conduct the estimation. Only the wastes which do not need the pre-treatment but have the potential to bind CO2 were taken into consideration, that means: fly ash from the conventional boilers, ash from fluidal boilers, mixtures of ash and desulphurization products, fly ash from co-combustion of coal and bio-mass and waste from half-dry method of desulphurization. It was assumed that the sequestration may be conducted with the use of waste used in mining and waste which are commercially unexploited. It was estimated that this way about 117.25 Gg CO2/year of CO2 can be utilized every year.


Grudzinski Z.,Instytut Gospodarki Surowcami Mineralnymi i Energia PAN
Gospodarka Surowcami Mineralnymi / Mineral Resources Management | Year: 2013

Global coal production was at the level of 6.65 thousend million tonnes in 2011 and was higher than in 1990 by about 3.2 thousend million 93%).Within 21 years, the average growth rate was at the level of 3.2%. Since the last year, coal production increased by 6.2%. The share of steam coal was about 85% at that time. Since 1990, demand for energy has increased by 45%, while demand for energy from coal increased by 56%. However, since 2000, an increase in energy consumption from coal is the largest of all the other energy sources. The average annual growth in the case of coal was at the level of 3.9%. Currently, about 15% of the extracted coal is traded. The two main coal markets are the Pacific one and the Atlantic one, which share together about 80-85% of the total coal trade. The maritime trading prevails and only 8% of coal is transported overland. Steam coal trade exceeded 1 billion tonnes in 2010 and, when compared to 1990, it increased by 124%. Import of coal to markets in Asia and the Pacific regions grew nearly 7 times since 1990, while imports of the European region approximately doubled. Maritime transport takes place mainly with the employment if panama vessels. There are more than 100 ports through which coal is exported in the world. However, in the importing countries coal is discharged in about 220 ports. The most important companies that produce most of coal (globally) are the following companies: Coal India, two US companies: Peabody and Arch, and two companies from China: Shenhua and China Coal.

Loading Instytut Gospodarki Surowcami Mineralnymi i Energia PAN collaborators
Loading Instytut Gospodarki Surowcami Mineralnymi i Energia PAN collaborators