Instytut Geografii i Przestrzennego Zagospodarowania PAN

Warsaw, Poland

Instytut Geografii i Przestrzennego Zagospodarowania PAN

Warsaw, Poland
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Teutonic Knights had emerged in Chełmno Land in 1226 and immediately subdivided it in some internal administrative units. This also concerned the Rogozno Commandity. It is possible that these territorial and administrative changes were caused by environmental factors. The research on this problem begun with gathering of historical and present-day maps completelly covering territory analysed (circa 280 km2): Schrotter's Map 1798-1803, present- day maps: of soil quality, topographic ones and maps of archaeological revelations. The first step of analysis was to reconstruct the elements of historical landscape for every commandity. Recent and mediaeval landscapes were compared with each other to trace the differences in earial extent of forests and swamps as well as hydrological setting elements that could be detected. Further, there was estimated the corn production for this territory, by the use of present- day soil quality maps. A soil quality factor was multiplied by an average of corn produciton in mediaeval time and by the areas of commandities, to know how much corn was possible to get from every commandity. Also the approximate number of citizens in this commandity was assesed. The Population density of this territory equaled 12 persons per 1 km2, that is about 30% more than in adjacents commandities. This may indicate that in this area the potential of agricultural production was raised in comparison to other administrative units. In those units enviromental conditions allowed to gain 25% of crops more than the inhabitants needed, so initial thesis of historians that changes were caused by insufficient environmental conditions, was not reasonable. the situation was Probably different -Those states were self-sufficient, fertile and rich enough to be an object of rivalry.

In 1975 as a result of the 4.5-metre uplifting of water in two lakes functioning since the late glacial (Niewiarowski 1976), there was created the Pakosć Reservoir (West Noteć River). It is the biggest lake-Type reservoir in Poland (Gołdyn 1990). The water area increased from 8,1 to 13,0 km2. The scale of changes on the reservoir turned the natural lake-like body of water into artificial one. The exploitation manual of the reservoir allows for water level amplitudes up to 3.9 m, within the range from 75.5 m above sea level that is 0.6 m above maximum water levels which occurs on lakes before their accumulation to 79.4 m above sea level. In this situation more then 1/3 area of the reservoir is periodically drained. Before the uplifting water level in lakes cut trees growing beside lakes. At present there are many tree roots on the periodically drained part of shore zone which are 0,4-1,2 m uncovered (Photo 1, 2). Coastal zone of the Pakosć Reservoir is still active. Along abrasive part of it there is observed the cliff edge recession. From 1975 to 2003 it was removed about 12-35 m. The average speed in last years is about 10 cm per year. One of the effects of this process is the uncovering of the tree roots which grow in abrasion part of coastal zone. Next years this process will cover new trees growing in bigger distance from position of basic coastal line. When more then 80% tree roots are uncovered and exposed -The tree dies. In Pakosć Reservoir to fulfill it this process takes less then 25 years!.

Blazejczyk K.,Instytut Geografii i Przestrzennego Zagospodarowania PAN | Broede P.,Leibniz Research Center for Working Environment and Human Factors | Fiala D.,University of Stuttgart | Havenith G.,Loughborough University | And 3 more authors.
Przeglad Geofizyczny | Year: 2010

Starting from 1999, in the frame of International Society of Biometeorology special study group is working do develop new Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI). Since 2005 these efforts have been reinforced by the COST Action 730 of the European Science Foundation (ESF) in order to achieve significant progress in deriving such an index. The new UTCI index represents air temperature of the reference condition with the same physiological response as the actual condition. The index base on Fiala model that is one of the most advanced multi-node thermophysiological models. It includes the capability to predict both, whole body and local thermal effects. The model consists of two interacting thermoregulatory systems: the controlling active system and the controlled passive system. The passive system simulates the dynamic heat transfer phenomena that occur inside the body and at its surface. The active system is a model predicting the thermoregulatory reactions of the central nervous system. The assessment scale of UTCI base on the objective physiological reactions to environmental heat stress in wide range of weather and climates. As and example the index was applied to assess biothermal conditions it two spatio-temporal scales: local and regional. The results show good representation of specific local and regional features of bioclimate. Thus, the index can be applicable in various research dealing with: bioclimatological assessments, bioclimatic mapping in all scales (from micro to macro), urban design, engineering of outdoor spaces, consultancy for where to live, outdoor recreation and climatotherapy, epidemiology and climate impact research.

Kuchcik M.,Instytut Geografii i Przestrzennego Zagospodarowania PAN | Baranowski J.,Instytut Geografii i Przestrzennego Zagospodarowania PAN
Prace i Studia Geograficzne | Year: 2011

The paper presents the partial results of the multidisciplinary project assessing the ratio of biologically vital areas (RBVA) as an indicator in spatial planning of the housing estates in Poland. The article focuses on air temperature differences between the 18 housing estates characterized by different RBVA, different surrounding, the age of buildings, arrangement etc. The automatic measurements of the air temperature in each of estate were conducted from autumn 2008 to July 2010. They indicate that the warmest housing estates are those of the smallest participation of green areas (less than 20%), situated in the city centre but also those of RBVA c. 40%. The coldest are the estates of peripheral location but also those with higher participation of biologically vital area (up to 60%). The thermal differences between them reach 9.6°C in summer and 5.5°C in winter. The results point out the RBVA threshold of c. 45% above which the function of the natural environment in the city is not completely changed.

Bednarek-Szczepanska M.,Instytut Geografii i Przestrzennego Zagospodarowania PAN
Czasopismo Geograficzne | Year: 2011

The idea of agritourism development has become very popular since the beginning of political-economic transformation period in Poland. Agritourism is perceived by different actors (self-governments, scientists, and media) as an opportunity to develop many rural areas. The selected forms and aspects of the excessive interest in agritourism by scholars and self-governments are presented in the paper, as well as an attempt to find the reasons of such situation. Against this background the actual situation in agritourism in Poland is presented. Plans of spatial organization and programs (strategies, audits) of tourism development of all Polish voivodeships were analyzed from the point of view of agritourism. The analysis shows that regional authorities are highly interested in the development of agritourism in their voivodeships, but they overestimate its potential significance for rural economies. There is insufficient analysis of internal social, cultural and economic conditions of agritourism development, insufficient regard to external conditions (e.g. competitiveness of other regions, demand for such services). A similar approach to agritourism is presented in local (commune) strategies and development plans.

Eberhardt P.,Instytut Geografii i Przestrzennego Zagospodarowania PAN
Czasopismo Geograficzne | Year: 2010

The paper reviews the achievements of Polish geography of nationalities, which constitutes a part of ethnical geography and focuses on size, distribution and relationships between different nationality groups. Polish geography has a long tradition of researching this topic and yielded high quality analytical results. The most important publications in this field are presented in the paper. The earliest contribution of outstanding value was that by Czyński [1887]. Owing to censuses in Russia, Germany and the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, a comprehensive statistical datasets were available to Polish geographers in the early 20th century. Therefore, numerous interesting studies to show population distribution according to nationality could have appeared (e.g. by E. Romer and J. Da̧browski). A monumental achievement of that time was the three-volume work by W. Wakar [1917, 1918], in which geographical dispersal of Polish population in eastcentral Europe was presented. Further important contributions pertinent to nationality issues were written in the inter-war period. Their significance was scientific and political, since the nationality structure of contemporaneous Poland was highly diverse. They concerned different spatial scales and focused on both the dominant Polish population as well as on ethnical minorities. After the World War II and ethnical homogenization of Poland this research field suffered from marginalization. It is only after the census carried out in 2002, which included declaration of nationality, that the issue re-emerged in Polish geography. The closing part of the paper includes the review of the most recent achievements of geography of nationalities.

Baranowski J.,Instytut Geografii i Przestrzennego Zagospodarowania PAN | Adamczyk A.B.,Instytut Geografii i Przestrzennego Zagospodarowania PAN
Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Sklodowska. Sectio B | Year: 2011

The aim of the paper is to present the air temperature differences in Warsaw over the period 1951-1998 between different city structures: botanical gardens in the city centre and of suburban location, compact development in the city center and the suburbs. The trend of growing yearly mean air temperature in Warsaw was confirmed. The air temperature in the botanical garden in the city centre is of 0.4°C higher than outside the city. However, the thermal regime of the botanical garden in Powsin (which is of peripheral location) does not differ from rural conditions.

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