Blazejczyk K.,Instytut Geografii i Przestrzennego Zagospodarowania PAN |
Broede P.,Leibniz Research Center for Working Environment and Human Factors |
Fiala D.,University of Stuttgart |
Havenith G.,Loughborough University |
And 3 more authors.
Przeglad Geofizyczny | Year: 2010
Starting from 1999, in the frame of International Society of Biometeorology special study group is working do develop new Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI). Since 2005 these efforts have been reinforced by the COST Action 730 of the European Science Foundation (ESF) in order to achieve significant progress in deriving such an index. The new UTCI index represents air temperature of the reference condition with the same physiological response as the actual condition. The index base on Fiala model that is one of the most advanced multi-node thermophysiological models. It includes the capability to predict both, whole body and local thermal effects. The model consists of two interacting thermoregulatory systems: the controlling active system and the controlled passive system. The passive system simulates the dynamic heat transfer phenomena that occur inside the body and at its surface. The active system is a model predicting the thermoregulatory reactions of the central nervous system. The assessment scale of UTCI base on the objective physiological reactions to environmental heat stress in wide range of weather and climates. As and example the index was applied to assess biothermal conditions it two spatio-temporal scales: local and regional. The results show good representation of specific local and regional features of bioclimate. Thus, the index can be applicable in various research dealing with: bioclimatological assessments, bioclimatic mapping in all scales (from micro to macro), urban design, engineering of outdoor spaces, consultancy for where to live, outdoor recreation and climatotherapy, epidemiology and climate impact research.
Eberhardt P.,Instytut Geografii i Przestrzennego Zagospodarowania PAN
Czasopismo Geograficzne | Year: 2010
The paper reviews the achievements of Polish geography of nationalities, which constitutes a part of ethnical geography and focuses on size, distribution and relationships between different nationality groups. Polish geography has a long tradition of researching this topic and yielded high quality analytical results. The most important publications in this field are presented in the paper. The earliest contribution of outstanding value was that by Czyński . Owing to censuses in Russia, Germany and the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, a comprehensive statistical datasets were available to Polish geographers in the early 20th century. Therefore, numerous interesting studies to show population distribution according to nationality could have appeared (e.g. by E. Romer and J. Da̧browski). A monumental achievement of that time was the three-volume work by W. Wakar [1917, 1918], in which geographical dispersal of Polish population in eastcentral Europe was presented. Further important contributions pertinent to nationality issues were written in the inter-war period. Their significance was scientific and political, since the nationality structure of contemporaneous Poland was highly diverse. They concerned different spatial scales and focused on both the dominant Polish population as well as on ethnical minorities. After the World War II and ethnical homogenization of Poland this research field suffered from marginalization. It is only after the census carried out in 2002, which included declaration of nationality, that the issue re-emerged in Polish geography. The closing part of the paper includes the review of the most recent achievements of geography of nationalities.
Bednarek-Szczepanska M.,Instytut Geografii i Przestrzennego Zagospodarowania PAN
Czasopismo Geograficzne | Year: 2011
The idea of agritourism development has become very popular since the beginning of political-economic transformation period in Poland. Agritourism is perceived by different actors (self-governments, scientists, and media) as an opportunity to develop many rural areas. The selected forms and aspects of the excessive interest in agritourism by scholars and self-governments are presented in the paper, as well as an attempt to find the reasons of such situation. Against this background the actual situation in agritourism in Poland is presented. Plans of spatial organization and programs (strategies, audits) of tourism development of all Polish voivodeships were analyzed from the point of view of agritourism. The analysis shows that regional authorities are highly interested in the development of agritourism in their voivodeships, but they overestimate its potential significance for rural economies. There is insufficient analysis of internal social, cultural and economic conditions of agritourism development, insufficient regard to external conditions (e.g. competitiveness of other regions, demand for such services). A similar approach to agritourism is presented in local (commune) strategies and development plans.
Baranowski J.,Instytut Geografii i Przestrzennego Zagospodarowania PAN |
Adamczyk A.B.,Instytut Geografii i Przestrzennego Zagospodarowania PAN
Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Sklodowska. Sectio B | Year: 2011
The aim of the paper is to present the air temperature differences in Warsaw over the period 1951-1998 between different city structures: botanical gardens in the city centre and of suburban location, compact development in the city center and the suburbs. The trend of growing yearly mean air temperature in Warsaw was confirmed. The air temperature in the botanical garden in the city centre is of 0.4°C higher than outside the city. However, the thermal regime of the botanical garden in Powsin (which is of peripheral location) does not differ from rural conditions.
Kuchcik M.,Instytut Geografii i Przestrzennego Zagospodarowania PAN |
Baranowski J.,Instytut Geografii i Przestrzennego Zagospodarowania PAN
Prace i Studia Geograficzne | Year: 2011
The paper presents the partial results of the multidisciplinary project assessing the ratio of biologically vital areas (RBVA) as an indicator in spatial planning of the housing estates in Poland. The article focuses on air temperature differences between the 18 housing estates characterized by different RBVA, different surrounding, the age of buildings, arrangement etc. The automatic measurements of the air temperature in each of estate were conducted from autumn 2008 to July 2010. They indicate that the warmest housing estates are those of the smallest participation of green areas (less than 20%), situated in the city centre but also those of RBVA c. 40%. The coldest are the estates of peripheral location but also those with higher participation of biologically vital area (up to 60%). The thermal differences between them reach 9.6°C in summer and 5.5°C in winter. The results point out the RBVA threshold of c. 45% above which the function of the natural environment in the city is not completely changed.