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Warsaw, Poland

Krysinski L.,Instytut Badawczy Drog i Mostow | Grad M.,University of Warsaw | Mjelde R.,University of Bergen | Czuba W.,Instytut Geofizyki | Guterch A.,Instytut Geofizyki
Polish Polar Research | Year: 2013

This paper presents a study of the seismic Pwave velocity and density structure of the lithosphereasthenosphere system along a 800 km long transect extending from the actively spreading Knipovich Ridge, across southern Spitsbergen to the Kong Karls Land Volcanic Province. The 2D seismic and density model documents 6-8 km thick oceanic crust formed at the Knipovich Ridge, a distinct continentocean-boundary (COB), the east ern boundary of the dominantly sheared Hornsund Fault Zone, and the eastern boundary of the Early Cenozoic West Spitsbergen Fold and Thrust Belt. The crustal continentocean transitional zone has significant excess of density (more than 0.1 g/cm3 in average), characteristic for mafic/ultramafic and highgrade metamorphic rocks. The main Caledonian suture zone between Laurentia and Barentsia is interpreted based on variations in crustal thickness, velocities and densities. A high velocity body in the lower crust is preferably interpreted in terms of Early Cretaceous magmatism channelled from an Arctic source southwards along the proto-Hornsund zone of weakness. The continental upper mantle expresses high velocities (8.24 km/s) and densities (3.2 g/cm3), which may be interpreted in terms of low heatflow and composition dominated by dunites. The lower velocities (7.85 km/s) and densities (3.1 g/cm3) observed in the oceanic lithosphere suggest composition dominated by primitive peridotites. The model of mantle allows for successful direct description of subcrustal masses distribution compensating isostatically uneven crustal load. The estimated low value of correlation between density and velocity in the mantle 0.12 kg.s.m-4 suggests that horizontal density differences between oceanic and continental mantle would be dominated by compositional changes.

Grad M.,University of Warsaw | Mjelde R.,University of Bergen | Czuba W.,Instytut Geofizyki | Guterch A.,Instytut Geofizyki | Schweitzer J.,NORSAR
Polish Polar Research | Year: 2011

In marine seismic wide-angle profiling the recorded wave field is dominated by waves propagating in the water. These strong direct and multiple water waves are generally treated as noise, and considerable processing efforts are employed in order minimize their influences. In this paper we demonstrate how the water arrivals can be used to determine the water velocity beneath the seismic wide-angle profile acquired in the Northern Atlantic. The pattern of water multiples generated by air-guns and recorded by Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBS) changes with ocean depth and allows determination of 2D model of velocity. Along the profile, the water velocity is found to change from about 1450 to approximately 1490 m/s. In the uppermost 400 m the velocities are in the range of 1455-1475 m/s, corresponding to the oceanic thermocline. In the deep ocean there is a velocity decrease with depth, and a minimum velocity of about 1450 m/s is reached at about 1.5 km depth. Below that, the velocity increases to about 1495 m/s at approximately 2.5 km depth. Our model compares well with estimates from CTD (Conductivity, Temperature, Depth) data collected nearby, suggesting that the modelling of water multiples from OBS data might become an important oceanographic tool.

Moskalik M.,Instytut Geofizyki | Grabowiecki P.,Instytut Geofizyki | Tegowski J.,University of Gdansk | Zulichowska M.,Jagiellonian University
Polish Polar Research | Year: 2013

Determination of High Arctic regions bathymetry is strictly dependent from weather and ice mass quantity. Due to safety, it is often necessary to use a small boat to study fjords area, especially close to glaciers with unknown bathymetry. This precludes the use of modern multi-beam echosounders, and so traditional single-beam echosounders have been used for bathymetry profiling. Adequate interpolation techniques were determined for the most probable morphological formations in between bathymetric profiles. Choosing the most accurate interpolation method allows for the determination of geographical regionalisation of submarine elevations of the Brepollen area (inner part of Hornsund, Spitsbergen). It has also been found that bathymetric interpolations should be performed on averaged grid values, rather than individual records. The Ordinary Kriging Method was identified as the most adequate for interpolations and was compared with multi beam scanning, which was possible to make due to a previously modelled single beam interpolation map. In total, eight geographical units were separated in Brepollen, based on the bathymetry, slope and aspect maps. Presented results provide a truly new image of the area, which allow for further understanding of past and present processes in the High Arctic.

Grabiec M.,University of Silesia | Puczko D.,Instytut Geofizyki | Budzik T.,University of Silesia | Gajek G.,University Marii Curie Sklodowskiej
Polish Polar Research | Year: 2011

The spatial distribution of snow thickness on glaciers is driven by a set of climatological, meteorological, topographical and orographic conditions. This work presents results of snow accumulation studies carried out from 2006 to 2009 on glaciers of different types: valley glacier, ice plateau and ice cap. In order to determine snow depth, a shallow radio echo-sounding method was used. Based on the results, the following snow distribution patterns on Svalbard glaciers have been distinguished: precipitation pattern, precipitation-redistribution pattern, redistribution pattern and complex pattern. The precipitation pattern assumes that the snow distribution on glaciers follows the altitudinal gradient. If the accumulation gradient is significantly modified by local factors like wind erosion and redeposition, or local variability of precipitation, the accumulation pattern turns into the precipitation-redistribution pattern. In the redistribution pattern, local factors play a crucial role in the spatial variability of snow depth. The complex pattern, however, demonstrates the co-existence of different snow distribution patterns on a single glacial object (glacier/ice cap/ice field).

Laska M.,University of Silesia | Luks B.,Instytut Geofizyki | Budzik T.,University of Silesia
Polish Polar Research | Year: 2016

This paper presents a detailed study of melting processes conducted on Hansbreen - a tidewater glacier terminating in the Hornsund fjord, Spitsbergen. The fieldwork was carried out from April to July 2010. The study included observations of meltwater distribution within snow profiles in different locations and determination of its penetration time to the glacier ice surface. In addition, the variability of the snow temperature and heat transfer within the snow cover were measured. The main objective concerns the impact of meltwater on the diversity of physical characteristics of the snow cover and its melting dynamics. The obtained results indicate a time delay between the beginning of the melting processes and meltwater reaching the ice surface. The time necessary for meltwater to percolate through the entire snowpack in both, the ablation zone and the equilibrium line zone amounted to c. 12 days, despite a much greater snow depth at the upper site. An elongated retention of meltwater in the lower part of the glacier was caused by a higher amount of icy layers (ice formations and melt-freeze crusts), resulting from winter thaws, which delayed water penetration. For this reason, a reconstruction of rain-on-snow events was carried out. Such results give new insight into the processes of the reactivation of the glacier drainage system and the release of freshwater into the sea after the winter period. © 2016 Polish Academy of Sciences.

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