Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: NMP.2013.1.1-2 | Award Amount: 5.28M | Year: 2013
The major bottleneck for plant biomass processing is fiber saccharification: the conversion of cell wall lignocellulosic biomass into fermentable sugars (en route to production of value-added chemicals like second generation biofuels). Some microbes enhance this step by using natural self-assembling proteinaceous nanocatalists known as cellulosomes. CellulosomePlus targets rational design of optimized cellulosomes to overcome this problem.This would allow efficient production of biofuels from low-value raw materials like inedible parts of plants and industrial residues (which are all renewable, sustainable and inexpensive). First we propose to characterize the physicochemical and structural properties (including mechanostability) as well as interactions of enzymes and scaffolds from natural cellulosomes and non-cellulosomal components. In parallel, we will characterize a suitable residual substrate from municipal waste (organic fraction of municipal solid waste) and develop improved assays to reliably follow cellulosomal enzymatic activity. The acquired knowledge will be complemented with rapid computational modelling at the atomic and supramolecular levels for testing and predictions. Experimental and theoretical knowledge will be then integrated to design improved cellulosomes (with high-selectivity, activity and cost-effectiveness). Further improvement will be obtained by iteration using high throughput screening of components. The improved cellulosomes generated through this innovative multidisciplinary approach represent a step towards green chemistry since they are biodegradable proteinaceous materials and therefore by-products and/or wastes are minimized due to the high enzymatic selectivity. Finally, the production of the optimized cellulosomes (and the process involved) will be scaled up to preindustrial scale to demonstrate their viable commercial production. These results will be patented and a roadmap will be drawn up towards future standardization.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: PEOPLE-2007-1-1-ITN | Award Amount: 4.78M | Year: 2008
Indium nitride is a new narrow gap semiconductor (<0.7 eV), which alloys with GaN (3.5 eV) and AlN (6.2 eV) will allow the spectral range from telecom to hard UV wavelengths to be covered. This narrow band gap makes InN an exciting material from which to develop highest efficiency solar cells. Moreover, due to an electron mobility of around 4000 cm2/Vs and very high saturation velocities, InN is an ideal material for the development of high electron mobility devices capable of operating in the Terahertz range. To ensure the production of reliable commercial devices, rigorous fundamental research is required to understand the layer growth mechanisms and optimize material properties. In RAINBOW, academic and industrial consortium, the theoretical work will encompass modelling of the atomic structure and properties of the material from empirical potentials to ab initio techniques. Experiments will provide correlated structural, electronic, optical and chemical information from the nano to the macroscopic scale. In a closely concerted effort, we will determine the best conditions for the growth of highest quality InN and In rich (In,Ga,Al)N alloys by the main growth techniques (MOVPE, PAMBE,HVPE ). Under the supervision of world leading experts, numerous young researchers will directly benefit from this interdisciplinary and multisectorial research and training effort. The young researchers involved in this programme will also learn to manage research and industrial projects.
Xue Y.,Jilin University |
Matuszewski M.,Instytut Fizyki Polskiej Akademii Nauk
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2014
We predict the existence of a self-localized solution in a nonresonantly pumped exciton-polariton condensate. The solution has a shape resembling the well-known hyperbolic tangent profile of a dark soliton, but exhibits several distinct features. We find that it performs small oscillations, which are transformed into "soliton explosions" at lower pumping intensities. Moreover, after hundreds or thousands of picoseconds of apparently stable evolution the soliton decays abruptly, which is explained by the acceleration instability found previously in the Bekki-Nozaki hole solutions of the complex Ginzburg-Landau equation. We show that the soliton can be formed spontaneously from a small seed in the polariton field or by using spatial modulation of the pumping profile. © 2014 American Physical Society.
Matuszewski M.,Instytut Fizyki Polskiej Akademii Nauk
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2010
We consider a spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensate trapped in a harmonic potential under the influence of a homogeneous magnetic field. We investigate spatial and spin structure of the mean-field ground states under constraints on the number of atoms and the total magnetization.We show that the trapping potential can make the antiferromagnetic condensate separate into three distinct phases and ferromagnetic condensate into two distinct phases. In the ferromagnetic case, the magnetization is located in the center of the harmonic trap, while in the antiferromagnetic case magnetized phases appear in the outer regions. We describe how the transition from the Thomas-Fermi regime to the single-mode approximation regime with decreasing number of atoms results in the disappearance of the domains. We suggest that the ground states can be created in experiment by adiabatically changing the magnetic-field strength. ©2010 The American Physical Society.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-SA | Phase: REGPOT-2012-2013-1 | Award Amount: 5.53M | Year: 2013
The EAgLE project aims at establishing at the Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences (IFPAN) a leading multiprofile research Centre for designing and fabricating new materials, their characterization and testing under extreme experimental conditions. The Centre will identify and select novel materials, structures, phenomena, and computational protocols for functional new-concept nanodevices. The Centre will benefit from twinning with 16 partnering institutions having the sound expertise in the field of materials fabrication (e.g. MBE, chemical synthesis, lithography, FIB), characterization (e.g. XPS, TEM, EELS, synchrotron diffraction and spectroscopy, NMR), nanodevice design and testing (e.g. semi- and superconducting electronics, cryogenics, computer simulations). The research potential will be enhanced through employment of both experienced and young researchers in the relevant fields. Within the project an X-Ray Photoelectron Spectrometer (XPS) will be acquired, making it possible to perform element specific and chemical sensitive characterization of materials with 3D resolution. A cryogen-free dilution refrigerator will be another essential purchase opening new opportunities to follow properties of the materials and devices down to a few miliKelvins. An important goal of the Centre will be exploration and standardization of user-friendly computational methods for materials design and for modelling of functional properties and nanodevices, including code validation and benchmarking, available also to external users. The awareness of issues related to the field of intellectual property, licensing, and patenting will be raised among the staff members via a series of dedicated workshops, in order to improve the transfer of innovations to new spin-offs, SMEs, and industry.