Instytut Dendrologii PAN

Kórnik, Poland

Instytut Dendrologii PAN

Kórnik, Poland
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Boratynska K.,Instytut Dendrologii PAN | Jasinska A.K.,Instytut Dendrologii PAN | Marcysiak K.,Ossolinskich | Sobierajska K.,Instytut Dendrologii PAN
Dendrobiology | Year: 2011

Pinus uliginosa is an interesting taxon from the Pinus mugo complex with controversial systematic position andspecific characteristics, intermediate among P. mugo, P. uncinata and P. sylvestris. The peat-bog pine is rare andprotectedin Poland. All its' known populations have a relict character andare slightly different from each other. The aim of the present study was comparison of the individuals from the Czarne Bagno of the "Torfowisko pod Zieleńcem" Nature Reserve (Sudetes), determined in the field on the basis of morphological characteristics as Pinus uliginosa, with four samples of this taxon from the northern limits of its range in PolandandGer - many andwith Pinus sylvestris, P. mugo and P. uncinata, to verify morphological andtaxonomic relations between them. The material collected from 30 individuals determined as P. uliginosa, was closest to populations of P. uliginosa from the Bory Dolnośla{ogonek}skie, andto P. mugo from the Tatra Mts., concerning the needle characters. The cone characteristics of P. uliginosa individuals from the Czarne Bagno appeared similar to all other of that taxon. In spite of that, the cone characters first of all differentiate P. uliginosa from P. sylvestris, P. mugo and P. uncinata. The combination of needle and cone morphological characters are a good tool to distinguish P. sylvestris, P. uncinata, P. mugo and P. uliginosa with a very high probability.

Duczmal-Czernikiewicz A.,Adam Mickiewicz University | Dlatta J.B.,Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences | Rachwal L.,Instytut Dendrologii PAN
Biuletyn - Panstwowego Instytutu Geologicznego | Year: 2012

The paper describes a mineral and mineralogical composition of post-flotation tailings of copper ores and their possible use for agricultural purposes. The tailings can find application as additives controlling the acidity of agricultural soils and as a source of microelements for plants. The following copper and lead minerals are dominant: covellite, chalcocite, chalcopyrite and galena; copper and lead carbonates are represented by malachite and cerusite. Iron sulphides and oxides, i.e.: pyrite, marcasite, hematite and goethite have also been identified. In the grain fraction >0.016 mm, native copper was find, whereas fine fractions were dominated by the presence of malachite. An experiment with acid soil and test plant (rye - Secale cereale) has revealed that the tailings may be applied for regulating soil pH. Metal distribution in the test plant showed that ca 85% of metals were find in the root biomass. Tailings that are designated as soil should be used rather for crops of industrial purposes than for consumption.

Karolewski P.,Instytut Dendrologii PAN | Jagodzinski A.M.,Instytut Dendrologii PAN | Jagodzinski A.M.,Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences
Sylwan | Year: 2013

In addition to physical defenses, chemical defenses are the most effective way to protect plants from adverse biotic factors (phytophagous insects, other herbivores and pathogenic fungi). This requires extra effort from plants to produce secondary defense metabolites at the expense of production of primary metabolites directly linked to the growth and development of plants. There are three main groups of defensive compounds (alkaloids, phenolic compounds and terpenoids). All defensive compounds are rich in carbon. Depending on the chemical formula, carbon makes up from about 40% to over 85% of the molecular weight of various defense compounds. It is not possible to calculate the total carbon mass accumulation in all defense compounds. In this paper we discuss the content of defensive compounds and carbon with respect to defense strategy of plants, functional groups of woody species (coniferous and deciduous trees), tree species, tree biomass components (leaves, branches, bark, roots, etc.) and many other internal (age of trees, age of leaves, stage of development, origin, etc.) as well as external factors, related to soil and climatic conditions.

Napierala-Filipiak A.,Instytut Dendrologii PAN | Filipiak M.,Instytut Dendrologii PAN | Filipiak M.,Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences | Jaworek J.,Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences
Sylwan | Year: 2014

Elm resources in Poland were analysed on the basis of latest forestry inventory data (updated in 2012). As compared with the 1970s, a remarkable increase was noticed in the total area of forest stands dominated by elms. However, the contribution of elms to the total forest area in Poland is still small (17 653.67 ha, i.e. 0.24% of the total forest area), while forest stands dominated by them cover only 1011.84 hectares (0.01%). Elm forests are the most frequent at alluvial sites, but majority of elm trees is scattered in lowlands, mostly at the fertile potential sites of oak-hornbeam forest. Elms do not prefer any part of Poland, but their contribution is markedly lower in forests of the Sudety Mountains. © 2014, Polish Forest Society. All rights reserved.

Black alder, a major forest tree species in Europe, thrives in moist soils. During the seeds extraction (nutlets) from the cones, the heaviest seeds were observed to fall out first. Seed weight was not correlated to the ability of germination; no significant differences were observed between the heaviest and the lightest seeds. Seeds with a fresh mass moisture content of 8-9% after storage in -3°C retained their high germinability for six winters. However, seedling emergence decreased gradually when tested in cell trays in an unheated greenhouse. Along with the decline of seedling emergence, the participation of high seedlings (≥25 cm) decreased and participation of small seedlings increased simultaneously. These results question whether the practice of storing seeds in -3°C for long time is the best method of germplasm preservation. © 2014, Polish Forest Society. All rights reserved.

On the basis of historical and recent cadastral maps, topographic maps, and aerial photographs, we analysed changes in forest area within the cadastral units of Karpniki village, in the Karpnicki Potok (SW Poland). In 1823-2012, forest area increased there from about 41% to over 57% of the total area. The greatest increase has been recorded recently. Moreover, at that time over 16% of land classified officially as farmland was naturally colonized by communities dominated by woody plants. This seminatural process in the analysed case does not pose any serious threat to natural resources, but a complete lack of its control may lead to deterioration of the value of the local landscape and development of low-quality forest stands. The observed changes seem to be typical of other areas located in lower parts of the Sudety Mountains.

Since the beginning of XIX century a considerable number of Douglas fir populations from North America were introduced to many European countries. In France, Douglas fir is still going to increase significantly its participation in growing stock and wood harvest. There are also some countries (e.g. the Netherlands), where the interest in breeding and silviculture of Douglas fir have been decreased in last decades. The data from the European literature was collected to show a current volume stock, growth increment, gene resources and qualified seed sources of Douglas fir in the outlook of the future role of the species in European forest economy. A short outlook on the breeding programs of Douglas fir working out in several European countries was also presented. © 2014, Polish Forest Society. All rights reserved.

Kalucka I.,University of Lodz | Jagodzinski A.M.,Instytut Dendrologii PAN | Jagodzinski A.M.,Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences
Sylwan | Year: 2013

In boreal and temperate forests fungi play a particularly important role, since most trees form a symbiotic relationship with many species of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi, providing them with assimilates in exchange for minerals. Mycorrhiza is considered one of the most significant factors affecting functioning of forest ecosystems, and in particular the processes of carbon cycling and storage. ECM fungi are involved both directly through carbon accumulation in the mycelial system, and indirectly through their influence on tree biomass production and organic matter decomposition. The amount of carbon transferred to ECM fungi usually varies from 10 to 25 or even 50% of the host's net photosynthesis, thus they are a group of organisms that significantly affect carbon flow into the soil. Most of that carbon is built into the mycelial system and its structures (fungal parts of ECM roots, extramatrical hyphae and rhizomorphs, sporocarps, etc.). Carbon allocation to the underground part of trees, and thus to ECM roots, changes with stand age and stand development phase. The biomass of active ECM roots and mycelium usually reaches its maximum in young stands, in the canopy closure phase; frequently, this is also true for the standing biomass of fruit bodies. A large share of ECM sporocarps in the forest carbon budget and high levels of ECM vegetative mycelium respiration are considered to be among the main pathways for the release of CO2 from forest soil, indicating a significant role of ECM fungi in fast carbon flow via forest ecosystems. On the other hand, dead ECM fine roots and extramatrical mycelia are a very rich and important pool of sequestered carbon in the soil.

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