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Kórnik, Poland

Duczmal-Czernikiewicz A.,Adam Mickiewicz University | Dlatta J.B.,Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences | Rachwal L.,Instytut Dendrologii PAN
Biuletyn - Panstwowego Instytutu Geologicznego | Year: 2012

The paper describes a mineral and mineralogical composition of post-flotation tailings of copper ores and their possible use for agricultural purposes. The tailings can find application as additives controlling the acidity of agricultural soils and as a source of microelements for plants. The following copper and lead minerals are dominant: covellite, chalcocite, chalcopyrite and galena; copper and lead carbonates are represented by malachite and cerusite. Iron sulphides and oxides, i.e.: pyrite, marcasite, hematite and goethite have also been identified. In the grain fraction >0.016 mm, native copper was find, whereas fine fractions were dominated by the presence of malachite. An experiment with acid soil and test plant (rye - Secale cereale) has revealed that the tailings may be applied for regulating soil pH. Metal distribution in the test plant showed that ca 85% of metals were find in the root biomass. Tailings that are designated as soil should be used rather for crops of industrial purposes than for consumption. Source

Black alder, a major forest tree species in Europe, thrives in moist soils. During the seeds extraction (nutlets) from the cones, the heaviest seeds were observed to fall out first. Seed weight was not correlated to the ability of germination; no significant differences were observed between the heaviest and the lightest seeds. Seeds with a fresh mass moisture content of 8-9% after storage in -3°C retained their high germinability for six winters. However, seedling emergence decreased gradually when tested in cell trays in an unheated greenhouse. Along with the decline of seedling emergence, the participation of high seedlings (≥25 cm) decreased and participation of small seedlings increased simultaneously. These results question whether the practice of storing seeds in -3°C for long time is the best method of germplasm preservation. © 2014, Polish Forest Society. All rights reserved. Source

Kalucka I.,University of Lodz | Jagodzinski A.M.,Instytut Dendrologii PAN | Jagodzinski A.M.,Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences
Sylwan | Year: 2013

In boreal and temperate forests fungi play a particularly important role, since most trees form a symbiotic relationship with many species of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi, providing them with assimilates in exchange for minerals. Mycorrhiza is considered one of the most significant factors affecting functioning of forest ecosystems, and in particular the processes of carbon cycling and storage. ECM fungi are involved both directly through carbon accumulation in the mycelial system, and indirectly through their influence on tree biomass production and organic matter decomposition. The amount of carbon transferred to ECM fungi usually varies from 10 to 25 or even 50% of the host's net photosynthesis, thus they are a group of organisms that significantly affect carbon flow into the soil. Most of that carbon is built into the mycelial system and its structures (fungal parts of ECM roots, extramatrical hyphae and rhizomorphs, sporocarps, etc.). Carbon allocation to the underground part of trees, and thus to ECM roots, changes with stand age and stand development phase. The biomass of active ECM roots and mycelium usually reaches its maximum in young stands, in the canopy closure phase; frequently, this is also true for the standing biomass of fruit bodies. A large share of ECM sporocarps in the forest carbon budget and high levels of ECM vegetative mycelium respiration are considered to be among the main pathways for the release of CO2 from forest soil, indicating a significant role of ECM fungi in fast carbon flow via forest ecosystems. On the other hand, dead ECM fine roots and extramatrical mycelia are a very rich and important pool of sequestered carbon in the soil. Source

Since the beginning of XIX century a considerable number of Douglas fir populations from North America were introduced to many European countries. In France, Douglas fir is still going to increase significantly its participation in growing stock and wood harvest. There are also some countries (e.g. the Netherlands), where the interest in breeding and silviculture of Douglas fir have been decreased in last decades. The data from the European literature was collected to show a current volume stock, growth increment, gene resources and qualified seed sources of Douglas fir in the outlook of the future role of the species in European forest economy. A short outlook on the breeding programs of Douglas fir working out in several European countries was also presented. © 2014, Polish Forest Society. All rights reserved. Source

Karolewski P.,Instytut Dendrologii PAN | Jagodzinski A.M.,Instytut Dendrologii PAN | Jagodzinski A.M.,Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences
Sylwan | Year: 2013

In addition to physical defenses, chemical defenses are the most effective way to protect plants from adverse biotic factors (phytophagous insects, other herbivores and pathogenic fungi). This requires extra effort from plants to produce secondary defense metabolites at the expense of production of primary metabolites directly linked to the growth and development of plants. There are three main groups of defensive compounds (alkaloids, phenolic compounds and terpenoids). All defensive compounds are rich in carbon. Depending on the chemical formula, carbon makes up from about 40% to over 85% of the molecular weight of various defense compounds. It is not possible to calculate the total carbon mass accumulation in all defense compounds. In this paper we discuss the content of defensive compounds and carbon with respect to defense strategy of plants, functional groups of woody species (coniferous and deciduous trees), tree species, tree biomass components (leaves, branches, bark, roots, etc.) and many other internal (age of trees, age of leaves, stage of development, origin, etc.) as well as external factors, related to soil and climatic conditions. Source

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