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Kórnik, Poland

Hortal S.,CNRS Trees/Micro-organism Interactions | Hortal S.,CSIC - Estacion Experimental De Zonas Aridas | Trocha L.K.,Instytut Dendrologii | Murat C.,CNRS Trees/Micro-organism Interactions | And 5 more authors.
Molecular Ecology | Year: 2012

In this study, we characterize and compare the genetic structure of aboveground and belowground populations of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Laccaria amethystina in an unmanaged mixed beech forest. Fruiting bodies and mycorrhizas of L. amethystina were mapped and collected in four plots in the Świȩtokrzyskie Mountains (Poland). A total of 563 fruiting bodies and 394 mycorrhizas were successfully genotyped using the rDNA IGS1 (intergenic spacer) and seven simple sequence repeat markers. We identified two different genetic clusters of L. amethystina in all of the plots, suggesting that a process of sympatric isolation may be occurring at a local scale. The proportion of individuals belonging to each cluster was similar among plots aboveground while it significantly differed belowground. Predominance of a given cluster could be explained by distinct host preferences or by priority effects and competition among genets. Both aboveground and belowground populations consisted of many intermingling small genets. Consequently, host trees were simultaneously colonized by many L. amethystina genets that may show different ecophysiological abilities. Our data showed that several genets may last for at least 1 year belowground and sustain into the next season. Ectomycorrhizal species reproducing by means of spores can form highly diverse and persistent belowground genets that may provide the host tree with higher resilience in a changing environment and enhance ecosystem performance. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source

Lukowski A.,Instytut Dendrologii | Lukowski A.,Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences | Karolewski P.,Instytut Dendrologii
Sylwan | Year: 2014

This article studies the effect of light and high temperature on various parameters describing the growth and development of bird cherry ermine moth (Yponomeuta evonymellus L.) - the main pest of bird cherry (Prunus padus L.). We found that light significantly influences the moth masses and dynamics of their development. Moths developed from larvae feeding on leaves growing in full light conditions have a higher mass and shorter time of adult eclosion from pupa in comparison with larvae feeding on leaves growing in shade. However, extremely high summer temperature significantly disturbs pupation process in Y. evonymellus population. Our laboratory experiments indicate that a critical temperature is 36°C. Above this threshold the percentage of pupation drastically decreases (from ca. 70% to 35%). The conditions of intensive sun are better for some parameters of growth and development of bird cherry ermine moth. On the other hand, extreme summer temperatures, related with global warming, may restrict the occurrence of Y. evonymellus gradation. © 2014, Polish Forest Society. All rights reserved. Source

Chmura D.J.,Instytut Dendrologii | Guzicka M.,Instytut Dendrologii | Rozkowski R.,Instytut Dendrologii | Michalowicz D.,Instytut Dendrologii | And 2 more authors.
Sylwan | Year: 2014

The biomass productivity of individual trees at age 14 years was investigated in the experiment with 8 provenances and 186 half-sib families of pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.). The aim of the study was to develop allometric equations and estimate heritability of tree biomass. We sampled 28 model trees and measured dry mass of their components, including roots (on 14 trees). A decreasing share of aboveground biomass was allocated to stems, and an increasing share to branches and foliage with increasing tree size. Also a decreasing share of total tree biomass was found in roots with increasing tree dimensions. Allometric equations involving diameter at breast height in combination with tree height were developed to model biomass of all components and whole tree. We used those equations to estimate tree biomass on the subset of research area, involving all provenances and 180 half-sib families. Heritability coefficients for tree biomass were the greatest for provenances (0.84), average for families (0.58) and the lowest for individual trees (0.18). However, estimates of family heritability varied by provenance (from 0.18 to 0.74). These findings suggest that the most efficient strategy for improvement of productivity in pedunculate oak would be selection of provenances and families within provenances. © 2014, Polish Forest Society. All rights reserved. Source

Litkowiec M.,Instytut Dendrologii | Plitta B.P.,Instytut Dendrologii | Lewandowski A.,Instytut Dendrologii
Sylwan | Year: 2013

The genetic variation is considered to be a key factor for long-term survival of the species. The recognition of the existing genetic diversity is the preliminary phase in development of an effective strategy for conservation of forest tree species gene pools. Taxus baccata L. with a wide but scattered distribution in Europe is an example of rare and endangered species that needs both ex situ and in situ protection. The increase in fragmentation and isolation of populations and reduction in effective population size can cause erosion of the gene pool through increased genetic drift, increased inbreeding, reduced gene flow and decreased migration rate. As a result, local populations may be responsible for the loss of genetic variation, hence a decrease in their viability and adaptability. A few genetic analyses based on isozymes and DNA markers indicate that the yew, both in Poland and in other regions of Europe, is characterized by high levels of genetic variation within populations and moderate genetic differentiation between populations. Source

Lewandowski A.,Instytut Dendrologii | Litkowiec M.,Instytut Dendrologii | Orygier A.,Instytut Dendrologii | Dering M.,Instytut Dendrologii
Sylwan | Year: 2012

The origin of the Norway spruce in the Gołdap Forest District from the north-eastern part of Poland was verified using the maternally inherited mitochondrial marker mtl5-D02, which in Poland displays a geographical specifity. We analyzed 730 trees from 29 populations and 21 plus trees. These populations included four reserves, four registered seed stand and 21 managed tree-stands. As a result of the performed analyses it was found that 8 out of 21 plus trees were non-native. Also 11 out of the 29 investigated populations contained trees of non-native origin. The scale of this phenomenon varies, although it encompasses the entire region of the forest district. Source

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