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SWierz-Motysia B.,Instytut Chemii Przemyslowej | Jeziorska R.,Instytut Chemii Przemyslowej | Szadkowska A.,Instytut Chemii Przemyslowej | Piotrowska M.,University of Lodz
Polimery/Polymers | Year: 2011

The results of studies of the influence of a compatibilizer on the properties of binary polylactide (PLA) and thermoplastic starch (TPS) blends have been presented. The polylactide modified with reactive anhydride groups (PLAm) was applied as compatibilizer. The synthesis of thermoplastic potato (TPS-Z) and corn (TPS-K) starch, the compatibilizer as well as PLA/TPS blends of 40 or 50 wt.% of starchwas performed in a co-rotating twin-screw extruder. The structure of the obtained materials was evaluated by means of SEM (Figs. 1, 3) and FT-IR (Fig. 2) analysis. The dynamic (DMTA) aswell as static mechanical (tensile and flexural) properties (Figs. 4-8, Tables 1-5) and also the biodegradability in the soil burial test (Table 6) were determined. The blends with the compatibilizer were characterized by improved tensile, flexural and impact resistance properties as compared to the composites without compatibilizer. This indicates, most probably, the occurrence of intensive interphase interactions between the hydrogen bonds of the anhydride groups of the compatibilizer and the hydroxy groups of the starch during the reactive extrusion process. The rate of biodegradation of the blends decreases with an increase in the content of compatibilizer.

Walisiewicz-Niedbalska W.,Instytut Chemii Przemyslowej | Patkowska-SOKOLA B.,Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences | Rozycki K.,Instytut Chemii Przemyslowej | Gwardiak H.,Instytut Chemii Przemyslowej | Bodkowski R.,Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences
Przemysl Chemiczny | Year: 2011

Grape seed oil was treated with KOH or CaO in (HOCH2)2 or glycerol at 185°C for 3 h to isomerize the 9c,12cC18:2-linoleic acid to its conjugated diene 9c, 11tC18:2 and 10t, 12cC18:2 isomers. CaO was more less active than KOH as the isomerization catalyst, but the Ca salts are of higher practical use.

Szczepaniak B.,Instytut Chemii Przemyslowej | Jankowski P.,Instytut Chemii Przemyslowej | Soltysiak J.,Instytut Chemii Przemyslowej
Polimery/Polymers | Year: 2014

The possibility of using poly(1,3-phenylene methylphosphonate) (PMP) pre-reacted with low molecular weight bisphenol A epoxy resin for the preparation of flame retardant epoxy resins has been investigated. The molar ratio of the reactantswas adjusted to obtain a phosphorus content in the end product of 2.00 or 2,17 %. Triphenylphosphine, 2-methyl imidazole, triethanolamine and tetrabutylphosphonium bromide were used as catalysts. The effects of type and concentration of catalyst on the reaction course were investigated. The synthesis was carried out in the melt and the reaction progress was followed by determination of the epoxy values of the samples taken during the reaction. The viscosity of the samples and their molecular weight distributionwere determined as well. The influence of an ionic chlorine present in the epoxy resin on the course of the reaction was investigated. For selected samples 31P NMR spectra were recorded. The reaction conditions were chosen in such a way to avoid a gelation during the process. The application of the resins prepared in this way in the flame retardant epoxy systems will be reported soon.

Chmielarek M.,Instytut Chemii Przemyslowej | Skupinski W.,Instytut Chemii Przemyslowej | Wieczorek Z.,Instytut Chemii Przemyslowej | Dziura R.,Instytut Chemii Przemyslowej
Przemysl Chemiczny | Year: 2012

A review, with 15 refs., of phys., chem. and operational properties of α,ω-dihydroxypolybutadiene and its com. forms. Resuits of autltors' own studies were a/so included.

Modification of waste of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer (ABS) or waste mixture containing 48.6 % of polyamide (PA), 27.2 % of polypropylene (PP), 10.6 % of ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) and 11.9 % of a natural filler was carried out by reactive extrusion in twin-screw corotating extruder. Comminutedwasteswere mixed in selected ratios with linear low density polyethylene functionalized with maleic anhydride (MPE-LLD) used as a modifier. Thermogravimetric analysis as well as dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) were used to study the re-granulated products obtained. Their mechanical and processing properties were evaluated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)was used to study the products structures. It has been found that an addition of the modifier used improved thermal properties and increased both elongation and impact strength of the blends based on ABS. All this proves the compatibilizing effect of a modifier. DMTAresults also confirmed the compatibilizing effect of MPE-LLD due to the relaxation transitions βPP, γPP and γPA disappearance.

Jeziorska R.,Instytut Chemii Przemyslowej | Szadkowska A.,Instytut Chemii Przemyslowej | Sewierz-Motysia B.,Instytut Chemii Przemyslowej | Kozakiewicz J.,Instytut Chemii Przemyslowej
Polimery/Polymers | Year: 2012

The influence of "core-shell" polymeric nanofiller (DASI) and compatibilizer (maleated polylactide -MPLA) on the structure, mechanical and barrier properties of polylactide and thermoplastic starch blend was investigated. All materials were compounded in a co-rotating twin-screw extruder and then injection molded. The composites were characterized with SEM (Figs. 1-3), DSC (Fig. 4) and DMTA(Fig. 5) methods. Tensile and flexural mechanical and barrier properties were also determined. The addition of DASI in the presence of maleated PLAimproves adhesion between the PLA and TPS. It was found out, that contents of DASI particles have great impact on nanocomposites properties. Melting temperature and crystallinity were found to decrease by adding TPS as well as DASI (Table 1). PLA/MPLA/TPS/DASI nanocomoposites showed significantly lower stiffness due to lower storage modulus than pure PLA. However, G' slightly increases as a function of nanofiller (Table 2). Moreover, dynamic mechanical thermal analysis demonstrated that relaxation temperatures (Tα, Tβ, Tγ) of PLA/MPLA/TPS/DASI nanocomposites decreased (Tables 3, 4). The gradual enhancement in impact, tensile and flexural strengths of PLA/TPS blend containing MPLA was observed (Table 5). The addition of DASI nanoparticles to the PLA/MPLA/TPS blend increased impact strength and elongation at break and decreased tensile and flexural modulus simultaneously (Table 6). The improved barrier properties of nanocomposites containing TPS can also be mentioned as a positive effect (Table 7).

Wenda M.,Instytut Chemii Przemyslowej | Jeziorska R.,Instytut Chemii Przemyslowej | Zielecka M.,Instytut Chemii Przemyslowej | Panasiuk M.,Instytut Chemii Przemyslowej
Polimery/Polymers | Year: 2016

This paper is a review of the literature related to the preparation methods for silver nanoparticles and effects of the synthetic conditions on the properties of nanosilver. Particular attention is paid on the antibacterial properties of silver nanoparticles and their possible use in polymer composites. Such materials can be applied in the production of medical and household articles as well as in the building sector. Also, the biocidal properties of colloidal silver solutions, methods for controlling the stability of colloidal silver particles and limitations of using these materials are described.

An analysis and the evaluation of balance models (static-approximate, corrected and dynamic-advanced) of polymer transformation chain "from products to post-consumer waste in the local economy has been presented. The balance for the polymer economy, though in goodagreement, is characterized by a high level of uncertainty not only for Poland, but also for the EU (Tables 1 - 4, Fig. 2). This has been the result not only of the dynamic character of changes takingplace, but also of the different fragmentation factors in the market concerning industrial and consumer applications. Moreover, there is also the issue of crucial difficulties in the mutual relationship between manufacturers, processing facilities, consumers and the waste polymer processing facilities. The general situation, with special consideration of the current availability of waste polymers for applications as raw materials in Poland and a long-term prognosis has been presented.

Jeziorska R.,Instytut Chemii Przemyslowej | Swierz-Motysia B.,Instytut Chemii Przemyslowej | Szadkowska A.,Instytut Chemii Przemyslowej
Polimery/Polymers | Year: 2010

Modifiers designated for the recycling of polymeric materials have been obtained in an in-house developed reactive extrusion process of glicydyl methacrylate with linear low-density polyethylene (PE-LLD) or ethylene-octene elastomer in a twin-screw co-rotating extruder. The chemical structure of the obtained polymers (EOR-g-GMA or PE-LLD-g-GMA) and the amount of GMAgrafted into the polymerwas determined by FT-IR spectroscopy (Fig. 2). The influence of the amount ofGMAon the thermal properties of the productswas evaluated by DSC analysis (Table 1, Fig. 3). SEM microphotographs illustrating the structure of the modified polymers were also presented (Figs. 11 and 12). The melt mass-flow rate (MFR)was determined and its dependence on the concentration of the initiator, GMAconcentration and screw speed evaluated (Figs. 4, 6 and 8). An evaluation of the mechanical and modifying properties of the modifiers (Table 2) as well as the waste polymers modified by them (Tables 3 - 5) confirm that the obtained compounds are suitable for application as impact strength enhancers and compatibilizing promoters in polymer blends.

Instytut Chemii Przemyslowej | Date: 2013-11-18

A method of obtaining paraffinic hydrocarbons from fat, by an exemplary method, whereby the method is performed in two stages, in a coupled flow-type system, under atmospheric pressure conditions, in the presence of heterogeneous catalysts, after their thermal activation, so that in Stage I the fat and/or waste fat is heated at a temperature range of 100-500 C., in the presence of an inert gas, in the presence of a catalyst in the form of a metal oxide on an oxide support or in the form of a mixture of at least two metal oxides on an oxide support. The product obtained in Stage I is treated, in the presence of an inert gas, at a temperature range of 100-500 C., in the presence of a metallic catalyst on an oxide support, with hydrogen gas or with a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide, obtained in the selective decomposition of methanol.

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