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An analysis and the evaluation of balance models (static-approximate, corrected and dynamic-advanced) of polymer transformation chain "from products to post-consumer waste in the local economy has been presented. The balance for the polymer economy, though in goodagreement, is characterized by a high level of uncertainty not only for Poland, but also for the EU (Tables 1 - 4, Fig. 2). This has been the result not only of the dynamic character of changes takingplace, but also of the different fragmentation factors in the market concerning industrial and consumer applications. Moreover, there is also the issue of crucial difficulties in the mutual relationship between manufacturers, processing facilities, consumers and the waste polymer processing facilities. The general situation, with special consideration of the current availability of waste polymers for applications as raw materials in Poland and a long-term prognosis has been presented.

Instytut Chemii Przemyslowej | Date: 2013-11-18

A method of obtaining paraffinic hydrocarbons from fat, by an exemplary method, whereby the method is performed in two stages, in a coupled flow-type system, under atmospheric pressure conditions, in the presence of heterogeneous catalysts, after their thermal activation, so that in Stage I the fat and/or waste fat is heated at a temperature range of 100-500 C., in the presence of an inert gas, in the presence of a catalyst in the form of a metal oxide on an oxide support or in the form of a mixture of at least two metal oxides on an oxide support. The product obtained in Stage I is treated, in the presence of an inert gas, at a temperature range of 100-500 C., in the presence of a metallic catalyst on an oxide support, with hydrogen gas or with a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide, obtained in the selective decomposition of methanol.

SWierz-Motysia B.,Instytut Chemii Przemyslowej | Jeziorska R.,Instytut Chemii Przemyslowej | Szadkowska A.,Instytut Chemii Przemyslowej | Piotrowska M.,University of Lodz
Polimery/Polymers | Year: 2011

The results of studies of the influence of a compatibilizer on the properties of binary polylactide (PLA) and thermoplastic starch (TPS) blends have been presented. The polylactide modified with reactive anhydride groups (PLAm) was applied as compatibilizer. The synthesis of thermoplastic potato (TPS-Z) and corn (TPS-K) starch, the compatibilizer as well as PLA/TPS blends of 40 or 50 wt.% of starchwas performed in a co-rotating twin-screw extruder. The structure of the obtained materials was evaluated by means of SEM (Figs. 1, 3) and FT-IR (Fig. 2) analysis. The dynamic (DMTA) aswell as static mechanical (tensile and flexural) properties (Figs. 4-8, Tables 1-5) and also the biodegradability in the soil burial test (Table 6) were determined. The blends with the compatibilizer were characterized by improved tensile, flexural and impact resistance properties as compared to the composites without compatibilizer. This indicates, most probably, the occurrence of intensive interphase interactions between the hydrogen bonds of the anhydride groups of the compatibilizer and the hydroxy groups of the starch during the reactive extrusion process. The rate of biodegradation of the blends decreases with an increase in the content of compatibilizer.

Szczepaniak B.,Instytut Chemii Przemyslowej | Jankowski P.,Instytut Chemii Przemyslowej | Soltysiak J.,Instytut Chemii Przemyslowej
Polimery/Polymers | Year: 2014

The possibility of using poly(1,3-phenylene methylphosphonate) (PMP) pre-reacted with low molecular weight bisphenol A epoxy resin for the preparation of flame retardant epoxy resins has been investigated. The molar ratio of the reactantswas adjusted to obtain a phosphorus content in the end product of 2.00 or 2,17 %. Triphenylphosphine, 2-methyl imidazole, triethanolamine and tetrabutylphosphonium bromide were used as catalysts. The effects of type and concentration of catalyst on the reaction course were investigated. The synthesis was carried out in the melt and the reaction progress was followed by determination of the epoxy values of the samples taken during the reaction. The viscosity of the samples and their molecular weight distributionwere determined as well. The influence of an ionic chlorine present in the epoxy resin on the course of the reaction was investigated. For selected samples 31P NMR spectra were recorded. The reaction conditions were chosen in such a way to avoid a gelation during the process. The application of the resins prepared in this way in the flame retardant epoxy systems will be reported soon.

Modification of waste of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer (ABS) or waste mixture containing 48.6 % of polyamide (PA), 27.2 % of polypropylene (PP), 10.6 % of ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) and 11.9 % of a natural filler was carried out by reactive extrusion in twin-screw corotating extruder. Comminutedwasteswere mixed in selected ratios with linear low density polyethylene functionalized with maleic anhydride (MPE-LLD) used as a modifier. Thermogravimetric analysis as well as dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) were used to study the re-granulated products obtained. Their mechanical and processing properties were evaluated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)was used to study the products structures. It has been found that an addition of the modifier used improved thermal properties and increased both elongation and impact strength of the blends based on ABS. All this proves the compatibilizing effect of a modifier. DMTAresults also confirmed the compatibilizing effect of MPE-LLD due to the relaxation transitions βPP, γPP and γPA disappearance.

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