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Częstochowa, Poland

Slizewska K.,Technical University of Lodz | Nowak A.,Technical University of Lodz | Barczynska R.,Instytut Chemii | Libudzisz Z.,Technical University of Lodz
Zywnosc. Nauka. Technologia. Jakosc/Food. Science Technology. Quality | Year: 2013

Prebiotics are defined as non-digestible food ingredients, which beneficially impact the organism of a host by means of selectively stimulating the growth and/or activity of one type or of a limited number of colonic microbiota. There are 5 basic criteria for classifying food ingredients as prebiotics: resistance to digestion in upper gastrointestinal tracts; fermentation by intestinal microbiota; beneficial impact on health of host; selective stimulation of the growth of probiotics; stability under varying food processing conditions. Owing to their valuable technological properties, the prebiotics are applied in many food products as fat and sugar substitutes or as a texture- and gel-forming agent. In the paper discussed are the definitions, criteria of classification, profile of prebiotic substances, and their industrial applications.

Siemion P.,Instytut Chemii | Kapusniak J.,Instytut Chemii
Przemysl Chemiczny | Year: 2011

A review, with 106 refs., of methods for starch oxidation and uses.

Minced animal hide and skin scraps (collected at a slaughter of cattle and pigs) were soaked in H2O to remove curing salts, limed with Ca(OH)2 in 20 m3 vessels, soaked with H2O to remove Ca(OH)2, and macerated with diluted HCl or H 2SO4 at pH 6.3-6.6 for 6-8 h. Then, the skin scrap sludge was pumped to a system of tanks (4.5 m3 each) and hydrolyzed at 60-70°C and pH 6.3-6.6 to resp. polypeptides after addn. of com. 30% H 2O2 (0.5 L per 1000 kg of wet crude material). The d. of the soin, was checked with areometer at 50°C. The process was completed when the polypeptide concn. reached 14.1%. The liq. was sepd. by centrifuging and filter pressing. The process was repeated twice by using the remaining skin pieces from the first hydrolysis In similar manner. The resulting polypeptides (yield 13.2-15.0%, related to the crude skin scraps) showed the mol. mass 40-60 kDa. The process was com. Implemented and found more economically efficient than the conventional hydrolysis of gelatin.

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