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Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: BSG-SME-AG | Phase: SME-2012-2 | Award Amount: 1.62M | Year: 2013

Refractories are materials essential for all highly industrialised processes which are performed at elevated temperatures e. g. iron- and steelmaking, cement production, glass, ceramics, nonferrous metals, power production and waste incineration Refractories have high economical importance and serve a key function for the industry in Europe. In Europe, most of refractory manufactur are SMEs. The technical suitability of refractory products is warranted through physical, chemical and technological materials properties, laid down in data sheets. For the purpose of obtaining those technical specifications, testing methods are described in national and international standardisation systems, like DIN, CEN or ISO. Progressively, the established standard testing methods no longer fulfil the increasing requirements of the refractory market. This project is a response to the need for a systematic investigation of the accuracy, precision and reproducibility of the current EN testing standards for refractories with the aim to enhance their relevance, especially to the specific needs of SMEs. The central objective of this project is to increase the competitiveness of the European SME refractory producers. This will be archived by generating up-to-date EN testing standards as a save guidance for the producers. An extensive investigation of the current EN testing methods, designs of experiments and interlaboratory tests, more specifically collaborative tests, involving the major European refractory testing laboratories will be the key approach to attain this objective. For a successful review of the EN testing standards and an effective dissemination of the results, a strong and broad-based cooperation between transnational partners is planned. For this purpose, the European SME-AG for the refractory industry is involved and brings together the most active European testing laboratories and SMEs to conduct a large scale and in-depth study of EN testing standards.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: ENV.2008.3.2.2.1. | Award Amount: 2.11M | Year: 2009

Highly hydraulic binders, known as natural or Roman cements, were key materials to cover faades of buildings of the European Historicism and Art Nouveau (19th/early 20th century), a period of rapid urban growth in Europe. The maintenance, restoration and reconstruction of historic Roman cement faades form therefore an important issue in Europes efforts to preserve its architectural heritage. Therefore, the ROCARE project is proposed to provide conditions for the industrial development and commercialisation of Roman cements which is an innovative, promising technology developed at the level of a pilot-scale prototype in the recent research project of the 5th Framework Programme ROCEM, 2003-2006. The increasing awareness of the conservation profession and their interest in the product call now for further actions encompassed by the proposed ROCARE-project, which aim at filling gaps in knowledge and reducing the entry barriers of the novel technology to the market. They include (a) scaling up of the RC technology to a competitive level by optimising the process technologies at various conditions of production, (b) laboratory tests and studies to fully understand cement hydration and property development, as well as optimum conditions of mortar processing and handling in the conservation practice, and (c) broad dissemination measures to enlarge the market potential of the technology. The proposed project is designed for three-year duration and will be jointly conducted by 15 partners from industry, SMEs and research centres in 7 countries. It will allow the prototype developed in the earlier project to establish itself on the European market of building construction.


Dziuk D.,Silesian University of Technology | Giergiczny Z.,Wydzial Budownictwa Politechniki Slaskiej | Garbacik A.,Instytut Ceramiki i Materialow Budowlanych
Road and Bridges - Drogi i Mosty | Year: 2013

The results of tests concerning properties of cements containing calcareous fly ash obtained by a process of lignite combustion are presented in the paper. The scope ofthe study includes: Portland fly-ash cements CEM II/A,B-W; Portland composite cements CEM II/B-M containing a mixture of calcareous fly ash (W) and granulated blast furnace slag (S), siliceous fly ash (V) or limestone (LL), as well as pozzolanic cements CEM IV/B-W and CEM IV/A,B (V-W). Standard properties of cements, including cement water demand, mortars consistency and mechanical properties, are described in the paper. The obtained results have proven that use of calcareous fly ash in the production of common cements, especially Portland composite cement CEM II/B-M, is possible. Cements containing calcareous fly ash, regarding setting time, soundness and compressive strength, exhibit similar properties to the ones of cements with additives (CEM II - CEM V), available on the market for a long time. The use of calcareous fly ash in greater amount in cement composition (above 20%) results in the increased water demand and deterioration of mortars rheological properties. The process of intergrinding of fly ash with clinker in cement production results in decreased negative impact on cement water demand.


Baran T.,Instytut Ceramiki i Materialow Budowlanych | Drozdz W.,Instytut Ceramiki i Materialow Budowlanych
Road and Bridges - Drogi i Mosty | Year: 2013

Characteristics of domestic calcareous fly ash derived from burning of pulverized lignite are presented in the paper. Special attention is given to calcareous fly ashes from Bełchatów Power Station. The variation of chemical composition, average phase composition, as well as both pozzolanic and hydraulic properties of these fly ashes are demonstrated. The results are compared to domestic standards which define the possibilities of using calcareous fly ash as a pozzolanic and hydraulic constituent for cement production. Chosen methods of fly ash processing are also discussed in the paper.


The paper presents the experimental results of the methylcelulose effect on the hydration of the mixture of alite and tricalcium aluminate, also with gypsum addition. The experiments have shown that the methylcellulose admixture is hampering the hydration of alite, and the peaks of portlandite on the XRD pattern are appearing only after 24 hours. Even after 168 hours their intensity is lower than in the sample without this admixture, which is relating also to the reaction of C3A with water. In the case of gypsum addition to the mixture of alite with C3A the influence of methylcellulose is much lower, however, also well marked. The gypsum addition is accelerating alite hydration in the mixture with C3A, in both cases: with and without metylcelulose admixture. © 2014, Foundation Cement, Lime, Concrete. All rights reserved.


Pichniarczyk P.,Instytut Ceramiki i Materialow Budowlanych
Cement, Wapno, Beton | Year: 2015

In the paper the results of research on the influence of methylcellulose addition on the reaction rate of cement with water are presented, what is an important supplement to the author’s earlier works concerning the influence of that admixture on the reaction with water of tricalcium aluminate, alite as well as the mixture of these phases. Portland cement CEM I 52,5N-HSR/NA and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose of 70 Pa?s plastic viscosity have been used in the study. The experiments have indicated that methylcellulose has a significant influence on the hydration process of cement in the initial hours. The XRD results as well as microstructure observations under the SEM confirm presence of gypsum after 24 hours of hydration of cement with methylcellulose addition. Moreover, the addition of methylcellulose inhibits not only the formation of ettringite but also the formation of monosulfate. These observations confirm author's earlier experiments concerning hydration of the main cement phases in the presence of methylcellulose. © CEMENT WAPNO BETON.


Pichniarczyk P.,Instytut Ceramiki i Materialow Budowlanych
Cement, Wapno, Beton | Year: 2013

The effect of gypsum and two kinds of methylcellulose with plastic viscosity of 40 and 70 Pa·s on alite hydration was studied. The results have shown that gypsum retard alite reaction with water and this effect is significant till 24 hours. After 168 hours the heat of reaction is higher for alite sample with gypsum addition. The retarding effect of methylcellulose is significant in the sample of alite without gypsum. The influence of plastic viscosity i.e. 40 and 70 Pa·s of this admixture is insignificant. In the sample with gypsum addition the retarding effect is much lower.


Bochenek A.,Instytut Ceramiki i Materialow Budowlanych | Kurdowski W.,Instytut Ceramiki i Materialow Budowlanych
Cement, Wapno, Beton | Year: 2013

The zinc phase Ca3ZnAl4O10 synthesized in laboratory was added to industrial Portland cement and slag cement without gypsum, ground in laboratory mill, and cements properties were examined. The addition of Ca3ZnAl4O10 to industrial Portland cement does not cause its properties modification, if this addition does not exceed 1% of Zn in cement. Higher addition of zinc phase, equal 2% of Zn in cement, causes quick set, linked with ettringite formation and decrease of early strength, but insignificant after 28 days of hardening. Ca3ZnAl 4O10 added to slag cement without gypsum is causing very quick set, as a result of hydrated calcium aluminate crystallization. Zinc phase addition, corresponding to 2% of Zn in cement, causes drastic decrease of strength to about 8 MPa after 7 days of hardening and without further increase till 28 days.


Pichniarczyk P.,Instytut Ceramiki i Materialow Budowlanych
Cement, Wapno, Beton | Year: 2013

It was found that in mortars containing low methylcellulose addition, the untypical hydration of cement occurs and gypsum remains in the paste. In order to explain this changes the hydration of C3A with methylcellulose addition was studied. The results of this research have shown that the addition of methylcellulose retards significantly the reaction of C3A with gypsum. The peaks of gypsum disappear on XRD pattern after 168 h of hydration, however, the significant content of C3A is remained in the paste while ettringite is absent.


The binding properties of Ca3Zn3Al4O18 phase, synthesized in large periodical laboratory furnace, was examined It has shown quick set and high strength after two days of hardening, however, its development in the period of 28 days was rather low. It was the effect of the slow hydration of zinc phase in this period. The addition of about 11% of zinc phase to calcium aluminate cement caused the set acceleration and simultaneously significant strength decrease during the study period i.e. till 28 days. It is caused by the lowering of hydration rate of calcium aluminate cement.

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