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The paper presents a discussion of the information about xerothermical species obtained by modern molecular techniques, compared to the knowledge based on classic research. Molecular data can be an important new element in the study of the origin and the time of migration of xerothermic species to southern Poland and more broadly, to Central Europe. The results of the molecular study indicate that among the species of plants there are those that have been occurring and differentiating in Central and Eastern Europe for a time longer than that since the last glacial period, as reported previously in the literature. The analysis indicated also that the main migration route of the xerothermic species ran westward along the northern side of the Carpathian Mts but did not support the existence of a direct route from the south via the Moravian Gate. The divergence of genetic lineages identified in the study in southern Poland suggests that the populations from the Wyżyna Małopolska upland had an independent history and are older than those from the Wyżyna Lubelska upland. Source


In this paper phytosociological characteristics of some vascular plant invasive species are given. Probability of common invasive species co-occurrence was described as well. Research was carried out during 2010-2014 in the valleys of the Carpathian tributaries of the Vistula River, and along the Vistula River in Sandomierz Basin. Source


sium eriophorum (L.) scop, is a rare and endangered species both in the Tatra Mts and in other Polish part of the Carpathians. The species was not known till now from the eastern part of the Tatra National Park. In the paper three new localities from this part are recorded. Source


Betonica officinalis is the lowland species. In the Carpathians it is known only from the foothills (colline zone) and as a very rare from a few localities in the lower montane belt. So far the species was missing from the Tatra Mts. The paper provides information on two localities found in 2012 year from this area. Source


The list of rare vascular plants in the Vistula River valley in the Kotlina Sandomierska basin (the part between Raba and Wisłoka Rivers mouths) is presented. It contains i.e. species new or rare in this part of Vistula River valley, in the Kotlina Sandomierska basin, or in the whole Vistula River valley, as well as in Poland. 21 species endangered in Poland (e.g. Viola elatior), and similar number of species protected in Poland (e.g. Colchicum autumnale) are given in the list. Carex buekii was noted in the Vistula River valley for the first time. Source

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