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Miecznikowski A.,Instytut Biotechnologii Przemyslu Rolno Spozywczego | Lenart A.,Katedra Inzynierii Zywnosci I Organizacji Produkcji
Zywnosc. Nauka. Technologia. Jakosc/Food. Science Technology. Quality

The objective of the study was to determine the impact of composition, physical properties of carriers, and sizes of granules of lactic acid fermenting bacterial bio-preparations from Lactobacillus plantarum sp. on the survivability of bacterial cells during the fluidized bed drying and storage under the refrigeration conditions. The bio-preparations were prepared with the use of the following carriers: soluble potato starch, saccharose, glucose, and lactose. The betaine was applied as a protective substance. The wet preparations were granulated using sieves having side holes sizes as follows: initially 1.25 mm, and at the second stage of analysis: 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 mm. The preparations were dried in a laboratory fluidized bed dryer, at a temperature not exceeding 35°C. It was found that the survivability of the cells during drying was significantly impacted by the composition and the mutual ratios of the carriers used to produce bacterial preparations. The fluidized bed drying makes it possible to achieve a level of 65 % of the survivability of Lactobacillus plantarum C bacteria; however, the biological activity of the preparations analysed decreased, and 12 months after the storage at a temperature of 8°C, it was below 10 % in all groups of preparations compared to the initial value. Source

Smigielska H.,Poznan University of Economics | Lewandowicz J.,Poznan University of Economics | Le Thanh-Blicharz J.,Instytut Biotechnologii Przemyslu Rolno Spozywczego
Zywnosc. Nauka. Technologia. Jakosc/Food. Science Technology. Quality

The objective of the research study was to asses the usefulness of a technological RS4 type resistant starch of different botanical origin used as a thickener in ketchup sauces. The research material consisted of natural starches: potato starch, maize starch, and waxy maize starch, which were modified by the use of a cross-linking agent containing an adipic and acetic anhydride. The following research was performed: rheological analysis, texture analysis, colour and acidity analysis of the end product. It was found that, from the rheological point of view, all the sauces were pseudo-plastic fluids with a yield point. The highest apparent viscosity was recorded for the ketchup with the addition of the waxy maize, then, for the ketchup with the potato starch added, and with the maize starch added. The parameters of the texture profile of the ketchups analyzed slightly differed from the parameters of commercial ketchups, and the largest differences appeared in the range of hardness and adhesiveness. The application of the resistant starch preparations as a thickening agent to the production of the ketchup sauces has a positive effect on their colour. The botanical origin did not have any effect on the pH level of the analyzed products. The usefulness was confirmed of the RS34 type resistant starch, in particular of the potato and waxy maize starch, when applied as a thickener in ketchup type sauces. Source

The ongoing globalization of food trade including meat trade, facilitated by global access to the internet, has brought to light the usefulness of multilingual catalogues containing commercial offers and subject-targeted standards, which describe products available in the market. The speed of electronic communication makes it possible to purchase not only day by day, but, also, hour by hour, and, practically, to simultaneously place a purchase order and to transfer the agreed payment onto the account of a supplier. The existing world monetary system ensures the explicitness of both the currencies in use and the conversion factors determining their most recent exchange rate; however, to assure the honesty of transactions, there are necessary instruments that allow the determination of the subjects of transactions and their specificity along with the quality values at the same time. In particular, this refers to perishable products, which, first of all, cover non-processed agricultural products and food. Within the frame of standardization activities by the UN Organization, the Economic Commission for Europe has made an attempt to develop quality standards for perishable products and the Working Party on Agricultural Quality Products has been set up. The activities of this international institution were represented in the paper and exemplified by the standard of porcine meat in the form of carcasses and commercial cuts. Source

Kucharczak D.,Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences | Masewicz L.,Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences | Le Thanh-Blicharz J.,Instytut Biotechnologii Przemyslu Rolno Spozywczego | Baranowska H.M.,Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences
Zywnosc. Nauka. Technologia. Jakosc/Food. Science Technology. Quality

The objective of the research study was to determine the effect of acetylation of potato starch on binding water in starch gels produced. There were taken measurements of the spin-lattice T1 and spin-spin T2 relaxation times with the use of a low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR); also, the water activity in acetylated starch gels was determined. A polymer with a known degree of substitution (DS) was utilized in the study. Those systems were measured where the content of starch ranged from 0.02 g/g to 0.10 g/g. The results of the water activity measured were used to determine the hydration coefficient of the starch defined as the weight of water associated with 1 g of biopolymer. It was found that the applied modification of starch caused the value of its hydration to decrease. The acetylated starch with a 0.06 degree of substitution was characterized by the lowest coefficient of hydration. On the basis of the relaxation time values, there were determined those parameters, which characterized the molecular dynamics of polymer hydrating water fraction. The determined spin-spin relaxation rate of hydration water molecules decreased with the increasing quantity of acetyl groups that exchanged hydroxyl groups. That fact means that the quantity of water molecules bound in the polymer network is reduced owing to the predominance of polymerpolymer interactions over the polymer-water interactions. © Polskie Towarzystwo Technologów Żywności, Kraków 2015 Printed in Poland. Source

Sokolowska B.,Instytut Biotechnologii Przemyslu Rolno Spozywczego
Zywnosc. Nauka. Technologia. Jakosc/Food. Science Technology. Quality

In the 1980s, it was found for the first time that thermophilic, acidophilic spore-forming bacteria caused the fruits to spoil; therefore, Alicyclobacillus bacteria were regarded to be adverse micro-organisms unwanted in the fruit juice industry, since they might incur economic losses. Those bacteria cause defects of microbiological origin. The spoilage of juices is mainly manifested through the formation of off flavours and odours resulting from the occurrence of chemical compounds, such as guaiacol and halophenols, produced by those bacteria. The spores of Alicyclobacillus spp. survive for long periods of time in fruit concentrates and similar environments; however, for their growth, environments containing more water are required. It is difficult to inactivate Alicyclobacillus spp. in fruit juices, because the spores thereof survive high temperatures and, after pasteurization, can germinate and grow under fitting conditions. A. acidoterrestris is the most commonly occurring species responsible for the spoilage of juices and similar products. Those strains grow in an environment showing pH between 2.5 and 6.0 and at a temperature above 20 °C. © by Polskie Towarzystwo Technologów Żywności, Kraków 2014. Source

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