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Montilva M.,University Centroccidental Lisandro Alvarado | Berne Y.,University Centroccidental Lisandro Alvarado | Papale J.,University Centroccidental Lisandro Alvarado | Garcia-Casal M.N.,Instituto Venezolano Of Investigaciones Cientificas Ivic | And 2 more authors.
Anales Venezolanos de Nutricion | Year: 2010

The objective was to study the nutritional status and food habits of women of childbearing age (12 to 45 years) from Municipio Jimenez, Lara State, Venezuela. The sample consisted in 243 women, randomly selected from rural and urban conglomerates of the Municipio. Each woman was requested to fill a questionnaire, with personal and socioeconomic information, between September 2007 and April 2008. Weight, height, mid arm circumferences and skinfolds were obtained. The body mass index and composition indicators were calculated. The nutritional status of the group was classified according to national and international standards. Dietetic evaluation consisted in one food frequency and two food recall questionnaires. Overweight was present in 46.6% of women, being higher in adult women, low weight affected 8.3% being significantly more frequent in adolescents (p=0,000). There were important deficiencies in consumption adequacy of calcium (34.7%), zinc (20.9%), copper (13.3%), folates (41.5%), vitamins B6 (19.8%), C (62.6%), proteins (72.0%) and calories (58.1%). Cereals and edible fats were consumed daily by more than 90% of the sample. Intake of dairy products (61.7%), meats and eggs (76.5%), grains (17.0%), fruits (40.0%), and vegetables (14.0%), was less frequent. In conclusion, the population studied showed the simultaneous co-existence of excess and deficit of weight as well as inadequate food habits, that justify the implementation of intervention programs to diminish mortality and the risk of non-transmissible chronic diseases. Source

Tosta M.,Instituto Venezolano Of Investigaciones Cientificas Ivic | Oliveros J.C.,Central University of Venezuela | Mora J.R.,Instituto Venezolano Of Investigaciones Cientificas Ivic | Cordova T.,Central University of Venezuela | Chuchani G.,Instituto Venezolano Of Investigaciones Cientificas Ivic
Journal of Physical Chemistry A | Year: 2010

The gas-phase elimination kinetics of N-benzylglycine ethyl ester was examined in a static system, seasoned with allyl bromide, and in the presence of the free chain radical suppressor toluene. The working temperature and pressure range were 386.4-426.7 °C and 16.7-40.0 torr, respectively. The reaction showed to be homogeneous, unimolecular, and obeys a first-order rate law. The elimination products are benzylglycine and ethylene. However, the intermediate benzylglycine is unstable under the reaction conditions decomposing into benzyl methylamine and CO2 gas. The variation of the rate coefficients with temperature is expressed by the following Arrhenius equation: log k1 (s-1) = (11.83 ± 0.52) - (190.3 ± 6.9) kJ mol -1 (2.303RT)-1. The theoretical calculation of the kinetic parameters and mechanism of elimination of this ester were performed at B3LYP/6-31G*, B3LYP/6-31+G**, MPW1PW91/6-31G*, and MPW1PW91/6-31+G** levels of theory. The calculation results suggest a molecular mechanism of a concerted nonsynchronous six-membered cyclic transition state process. The analysis of bond order and natural bond orbital charges implies that the bond polarization of C(=O)O-C, in the sense of C(=O)Oδ-⋯Cδ+, is rate determining. The experimental and theoretical parameters have been found to be in reasonable agreement. © 2010 American Chemical Society. Source

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