Instituto Valenciano Of Investigaciones Economicas Ivie

Valencia, Spain

Instituto Valenciano Of Investigaciones Economicas Ivie

Valencia, Spain
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Balaguer-Coll M.T.,Jaume I University | Prior D.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Tortosa-Ausina E.,Jaume I University | Tortosa-Ausina E.,Instituto Valenciano Of Investigaciones Economicas Ivie
Annals of Regional Science | Year: 2010

This study analyzes the links between efficiency and the decentralization of power in Spanish local governments for the years 1995 and 2000. To this end, we carried out a two-stage activity analysis in which the performance of each municipality was first evaluated against other municipalities with a similar level of power and, in a second stage, compared with that of other municipalities for which decentralization remained at a more preliminary stage. Results suggest that some municipalities could manage their resources more efficiently if they were granted more power. Although these sort of decentralized economies do not emerge for all municipalities, their magnitude clearly overshadows the diseconomies found if downscaling of decision making goes too far and least decentralized municipalities dominate. In addition, the likely efficiency gains from enhanced decentralization increase over time. © 2009 Springer-Verlag.

Reig-Martinez E.,University of Valencia | Reig-Martinez E.,Instituto Valenciano Of Investigaciones Economicas Ivie | Gomez-Limon J.A.,IFAPA Centro del Llano | Picazo-Tadeo A.J.,University of Valencia
Agricultural Economics | Year: 2011

The assessment of sustainability at farm level has been growing in popularity over the last few years. This article contributes to this line of research by building up composite indicators for different facets-social, economic, environmental, and global-of farm sustainability using a methodological approach that combinesdata envelopment analysis(DEA) andmulticriteria decision making(MCDM) methods, and assigns common weights to each individual sustainability indicator. This approach is applied to a database of 163 farms located in the Campos County, a region belonging to the dry lands of the Spanish Northern Plateau, using 12 individual indicators of sustainability. Our findings show that both economic and environmental composite sustainability indicators are positively correlated, but that this is not the case for the social indicator. We also check the influence of a set of variables on farm sustainability using bootstrapping statistical techniques, and showing that increasing farm size, membership in agricultural cooperatives and farmers' medium and upper agricultural-specific technical education, all exert a significant positive influence on sustainability. These results provide clues for policy makers that intend to design sustainability-increasing structural agricultural policies. © 2011 International Association of Agricultural Economists.

Gonzalez-Morales M.G.,University of Guelph | Peiro J.M.,University of Valencia | Peiro J.M.,Instituto Valenciano Of Investigaciones Economicas Ivie | Rodriguez I.,University of Valencia | Bliese P.D.,Independent Contributor
Anxiety, Stress and Coping | Year: 2012

Building up on the socially induced model of burnout and the job demands-resources model, we examine how burnout can transfer without direct contagion or close contact among employees. Based on the social information processing approach and the conservation of resources theory, we propose that perceived collective burnout emerges as an organizational-level construct (employees' shared perceptions about how burned out are their colleagues) and that it predicts individual burnout over and above indicators of demands and resources. Data were gathered during the first term and again during the last term of the academic year among 555 teachers from 100 schools. The core dimensions of burnout, exhaustion, and cynicism were measured at the individual and collective level. Random coefficient models were computed in a lagged effects design. Results showed that perceived collective burnout at Time 1 was a significant predictor of burnout at Time 2 after considering previous levels of burnout, demands (workload, teacher-student ratio, and absenteeism rates), and resources (quality of school facilities). These findings suggest that perceived collective burnout is an important characteristic of the work environment that can be a significant factor in the development of burnout. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Gomez-Limon J.A.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Picazo-Tadeo A.J.,University of Valencia | Reig-Martinez E.,University of Valencia | Reig-Martinez E.,Instituto Valenciano Of Investigaciones Economicas Ivie
Land Use Policy | Year: 2012

Olive farming represents an important source of income and employment in the rural areas of Andalusia (Spain), which is the most important olive oil-producing region in the world. Unfortunately, it also exerts significant environmental pressures with regard to soil erosion, use of polluting inputs, excessive water consumption and biodiversity reduction. This paper uses Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) techniques and pressure distance functions to contribute a farm-level assessment of the eco-efficiency of a sample of 292 Andalusian olive farmers. We distinguish between managerial eco-efficiency and program eco-efficiency, the latter being associated to the different natural conditions prevailing in the three main olive cultivation systems in the region, namely, traditional rain-fed mountain groves, traditional rain-fed plain groves and irrigated intensive groves. Our findings show that eco-inefficient management is a widespread practice across olive farmers, mainly due to widespread technical inefficiency. Furthermore, the most eco-efficient production system is the traditional plain growing system. Finally, we find that soil-climate conditions strongly influence managerial eco-efficiency in all three aforementioned cultivation systems. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Pastor J.M.,University of Valencia | Pastor J.M.,Instituto Valenciano Of Investigaciones Economicas Ivie | Serrano L.,University of Valencia | Serrano L.,Instituto Valenciano Of Investigaciones Economicas Ivie | Zaera I.,Instituto Valenciano Of Investigaciones Economicas Ivie
Scientometrics | Year: 2015

The measurement of the research output of the Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) is problematic, due to the multi-product nature of their teaching and research activities. This study analyses the difficulties related to the measurement of the research output of the HEI and proposes a simple overall indicator which incorporates quantitative and qualitative aspects to permit the decomposition of the influence of the two factors. On the basis of this indicator homogeneous comparisons are made of the relative research output of the countries of the European Union and its evolution during the period 1996–2010. © 2014, Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary.

Picazo-Tadeo A.J.,University of Valencia | Gomez-Limon J.A.,IFAPA Centro del Llano | Reig-Martinez E.,University of Valencia | Reig-Martinez E.,Instituto Valenciano Of Investigaciones Economicas Ivie
Journal of Environmental Management | Year: 2011

This paper assesses farming eco-efficiency using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) techniques. Eco-efficiency scores at both farm and environmental pressure-specific levels are computed for a sample of Spanish farmers operating in the rain-fed agricultural system of Campos County. The determinants of eco-efficiency are then studied using truncated regression and bootstrapping techniques. We contribute to previous literature in this field of research by including information on slacks in the assessment of the potential environmental pressure reductions in a DEA framework. Our results reveal that farmers are quite eco-inefficient, with very few differences emerging among specific environmental pressures. Moreover, eco-inefficiency is closely related to technical inefficiencies in the management of inputs. Regarding the determinants of eco-efficiency, farmers benefiting from agri-environmental programs as well as those with university education are found to be more eco-efficient. Concerning the policy implications of these results, public expenditure in agricultural extension and farmer training could be of some help to promote integration between farming and the environment. Furthermore, Common Agricultural Policy agri-environmental programs are an effective policy to improve eco-efficiency, although some doubts arise regarding their cost-benefit balance. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Pastor J.M.,University of Valencia | Pastor J.M.,Instituto Valenciano Of Investigaciones Economicas Ivie | Peraita C.,University of Valencia
Regional Studies | Year: 2015

Pastor J. M. and Peraita C. The tax returns of public spending on universities: an estimate with Monte Carlo simulations, Regional Studies. This paper proposes a methodology based on counterfactual scenarios and the existence of uncertainty to estimate the tax returns of public spending of regional governments on their public universities. The introduction of differences in the time spent by the students at university and the proportion of the total public expenditure implies making assumptions about uncertainty. The paper applies Monte Carlo simulations incorporating stochastic elements to estimate the tax returns of public spending in the University of the Basque Country (Spain). The results indicate that public expenditure in university education is a profitable investment from a fiscal perspective. © 2015 Regional Studies Association

Reig E.,University of Valencia | Reig E.,Instituto Valenciano Of Investigaciones Economicas Ivie | Aznar J.,Polytechnic University of Valencia | Estruch V.,Polytechnic University of Valencia
Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2010

Sustainability of local farming systems and technologies is a very important issue that faces notorious measurement difficulties. Multi-criteria methods may help researchers to solve empirical problems in the construction of composite sustainability indicators and in ranking agricultural technologies according to their sustainability. This paper shows how a multi-criteria decision-making technique, the Analytic Network Process (ANP), can be fruitfully employed to this end. Contrary to simpler and hierarchical goal-criteria-alternative approaches, in ANP all the elements in the network can be related in any possible way, which means that a network can incorporate feedback and interdependent relationships within and between clusters. We illustrate the use of ANP by ranking three rice cultivation technologies -that we call unrestricted traditional, agro-environmental and ecological- in the rice fields of the Albufera Natural Park in Valencia (Spain), using economic, environmental and socio-cultural sustainability criteria. Rice is a multifunctional crop in this area, as flooded rice fields act as semi-natural wetlands, with important ecological consequences, mainly connected with the protection of biodiversity. We show that the ANP methodology is perfectly suited to tackling the complex interrelations involved in sustainability evaluation in this case. We find the ecological cultivation system to be the most sustainable technology. The agro-environmental system ranks second, while the unrestricted system is ranked third. Our results also show that if only the economic dimension of sustainability were considered, the order would be reversed, with traditional unrestricted and ecological technologies exchanging places and the agro-environmental system remaining in second place.

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