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Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SSH-2009-3.3.1. | Award Amount: 1.72M | Year: 2010

Tolerance has been increasingly invoked as the inspiring ideal of a number of social policies in European democracies. Appeals to tolerance have animated especially the political debates on those policies addressed to accommodate minorities requests. Among such requests those for the allocation of public spaces have recently acquired pride of place in the political agendas of many European and extra-European countries (e.g. the allocation of space for Roma sites; Muslims requests to build places of worship and housing policies for migrants). Despite such a generalized political and societal relevance of the notion of tolerance, some problems may occur when policies inspired by it are implemented. In particular, the implementation of tolerance-inspired spatial policies may result in the marginalisation of differences and thus risk undermining social cohesion. What conception of tolerance may be invoked to limit such a risk? To answer this question, we shall test the hypothesis that grounding tolerance on equal respect for persons may contribute to the development of spatial policies capable of resolving the tensions between tolerance and social cohesion in culturally diverse societies. In particular, the project pursues 4 objectives:1.to develop a conceptual taxonomy to clarify the liaisons between tolerance, respect and spatial issues;2.to study the ways in which appeals to tolerance have informed the development of spatial policies;3.to investigate the influence of cultural diversities on the interpretations of tolerance in different national contexts;4.to extrapolate from the above studies an overall view of the connections between tolerance and equal respect. Our findings will be of interests to national and international Civil Society Organisations (CSOs), policy makers at a European, national, regional and municipal level and international academics engaged in the study of urban integration in different social, religious, cultural, and political contexts.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-ITN-2008 | Award Amount: 3.04M | Year: 2010

The ITN Education as Welfare - Enhancing opportunities for socially vulnerable youth in Europe aims to consolidate research on education and welfare and evaluate its capacity to tackle the multiple challenges and pressures a large proportion of young people in Europe faces. In examining the welfare dimensions of educational settings and the educational dimensions of welfare services, it integrates welfare and educational perspectives into a coherent approach for theoretical analysis and public policy. By focusing on universal conditions of human development, this approach warrants international applicability. It produces knowledge that facilitates the enablement and social integration of young people facing economic, social and personal barriers after leaving compulsory schooling. The scientific objective of the research and training programme is to identify factors with which to extend young peoples opportunities and capabilities in work, autonomy and participation -- the central dimensions of welfare. The ITN will combine and synergise the interdisciplinary research experience and professional capacities of leading European university departments and social, economic and political actors. Alongside their own research projects, the Early-Stage Researchers will design and conduct a comparative Education-as-Welfare survey that will serve as one fundament of their methodological training. The five non-university partners will especially ensure the dissemination of the findings to education and welfare policymakers. The added value of the ITN consists in promoting a new type of governance of education and welfare that transcends traditional national borders. It will develop a theoretically advanced, empirically measurable and internationally comparable conception of education as welfare that the excellent experts in human service provision it has trained will be able to apply from an innovative, analytically sound and practically applicable perspective.

Iakovlev S.,Dalhousie University | Buchner C.,Vienna University of Technology | Thompson B.,Dalhousie University | Lefieux A.,Instituto Universitario Of Studi Superiori Of Pavia
Journal of Fluids and Structures | Year: 2014

A submerged fluid-filled cylindrical shell subjected to a sequence of two shock waves originated at the same source is considered. It is demonstrated that, unlike in the case of a submerged evacuated shell, there exists a certain critical range of the values of the delay between the incident wavefronts where both the peak compressive and the peak tensile stress observed in the structure are significantly (60% or more) higher than the respective stresses in the same system subjected to a single-front loading. It is further demonstrated that the highest and the lowest hydrodynamic pressure attained in the system is also dramatically affected for certain values of the delay between the incident wavefronts, with the maximum double-front pressure being more than 30% higher than its single-front counterpart. The practical relevance of the findings is discussed in the context of the pre-design analysis of industrial systems subjected to shock loading. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Vecchi F.,University of Pavia | Vecchi F.,Instituto Universitario Of Studi Superiori Of Pavia | Bozzola S.,University of Pavia | Pozzoni M.,STMicroelectronics | And 6 more authors.
Digest of Technical Papers - IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference | Year: 2010

Multi-Gb/s wireless communications, allocated in the unlicensed spectrum around 60GHz, have been the topic of intense research in the recent past and devices are expected to hit the market shortly. Key aspects behind the increasing interest for technology deployment are the feasibility of the radio in scaled CMOS and the successful demonstration of Gb/s transmissions [1]. Despite the fact that several circuit techniques at mm-Waves have been introduced in the public literature, key aspects of the analog processing tailored to the application requirements need to be addressed. Four channels covering 57GHz to 66GHz are specified [2]. Considering spreads due to process variation, an ultra-wide RF bandwidth of more than ∼12GHz has to be covered with fine sensitivity. In order to allow high-end rate transmissions, the phase noise of the reference signal is extremely stringent. Furthermore, low power consumption is key to enabling multiple transceivers on the same chip. ©2010 IEEE.

Proestos G.T.,University of Toronto | Proestos G.T.,Instituto Universitario Of Studi Superiori Of Pavia | Bae G.-M.,Seoul National University | Cho J.-Y.,Seoul National University | And 2 more authors.
ACI Structural Journal | Year: 2016

Current ACI Code shear provisions include some requirements that make the construction of complex heavily reinforced concrete structures more challenging. In particular, the 60 ksi (420 MPa) limit on the usable yield strength of shear reinforcement means it is not permissible to reduce shear reinforcement congestion by using high strength bars. To investigate the consequences of using highstrength bars, 12 reinforced concrete specimens, representing wall elements of nuclear containment structures, were constructed with varying steel strengths and were loaded under different combinations of shear and biaxial stresses. The results demonstrate that high strength bars can be effectively used in place of lower strength reinforcement patterns. For the tested specimens, the ACI 318-14 shear provisions gave very conservative results, while the Modified Compression Field Theory was able to predict the failure shear stresses and strains well, along with the full load deformation response of all elements tested. Copyright © 2016, American Concrete Institute. All rights reserved.

Decanis U.,University of Pavia | Ghilioni A.,University of Pavia | Monaco E.,University of Modena and Reggio Emilia | Monaco E.,Instituto Universitario Of Studi Superiori Of Pavia | And 2 more authors.
Digest of Technical Papers - IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference | Year: 2011

Wireless signal processing at mm-Waves would benefit from the availability of a quadrature signal reference, enabling direct-conversion transceiver architectures and providing phase rotators drivers in phased arrays systems [1]. They are furthermore attractive for clock recovery in ICs for wireline applications. Search of a compact quadrature generator at around 60GHz with low phase noise at moderate power is the topic of this work. Discarding a double-frequency VCO followed by dividers-by-two given the high frequency range of operation, the most suitable topology borrowed by RF solutions is represented by cross-coupled LC voltage-controlled oscillators [2]. However, the oscillation frequency dependence on the biasing current makes it susceptible to phase noise, close-in in particular [3]. At mm-Waves, this is exacerbated by core devices of small dimensions to such an extent that 1/f3 noise remains dominant up to more than ∼10MHz, making it unsuitable for stringent applications. On the contrary a ring of two VCOs magnetically coupled to each other, as shown in Fig. 16.2.1, has an oscillation frequency dependence on inter-stage passive components only, low 1/f3 noise together with good quadrature accuracy. The quadrature oscillator has been realized in a 65nm CMOS technology and prototypes show the following performances: 56-to-60.3GHz tunable oscillation frequency, phase noise better than -95dBc/Hz at 1MHz offset in the tuning range, 1.5° maximum phase error while consuming 22mA from a 1V supply. © 2011 IEEE.

Ghilioni A.,University of Pavia | Decanis U.,University of Pavia | Monaco E.,University of Modena and Reggio Emilia | Monaco E.,Instituto Universitario Of Studi Superiori Of Pavia | And 2 more authors.
Digest of Technical Papers - IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference | Year: 2011

With a cut-off frequency in excess of 250GHz, nanometer-scale CMOS technology is rapidly expanding from Radio Frequency to mm-Waves applications. Frequency dividers are key building blocks for LO generation in wireless transceivers and clock synchronization in front-ends for wire-line and optical communications. Dividers based on traditional static CML latches work over a wide band but power dissipation at mm-Waves is extremely large. To save power, recently reported mm-Wave PLLs propose tunable narrowband dividers, based on injection-locking techniques, together with digital calibration algorithms [1,2]. On the other hand, for division factors higher than 2, the frequency locking range of injection-locked oscillators is very limited, mandating fine and frequent calibrations. This paper introduces clocked differential amplifiers, working as dynamic CML latches, to realize high speed and low power mm-Wave dividers. The solution is very compact, which is particularly desirable at mm-Waves to ease chip layout and shorten IC interconnections, minimizing signal losses. A frequency divider-by-4 has been realized in a 65nm bulk CMOS technology and prototypes prove an operating frequency programmable from 20 to 70GHz. The frequency range in each sub-band spans from 10% to 17%, corresponding to a 2.5x to 4x improvement compared to injection-locked dividers-by-4. Maximum power dissipation is 6.5mW and occupied area is only 15μm x 30μm. © 2011 IEEE.

Silva A.,University of Porto | Jiang Y.,University of Porto | Castro J.M.,University of Porto | Silvestre N.,University of Lisbon | Monteiro R.,Instituto Universitario Of Studi Superiori Of Pavia
Journal of Constructional Steel Research | Year: 2016

The main objective of the research presented in this paper is to investigate the flexural behaviour of concrete filled steel tube (CFST) columns of circular cross-section, made with rubberized concrete (RuC). A second objective is to identify behavioural differences between this type of composite members and typical CFST members made with standard concrete (StdC), namely in terms of the influence of the rubber aggregate replacement ratio on member strength, ductility, and energy dissipation capacity. The paper describes the preparation and development of an experimental campaign, involving the testing of 16 circular specimens, 12 RuCFST and 4 StdCFST. The definition of the test campaign considered a number of parameters, namely cross-section slenderness, aggregate replacement ratio, axial load level and loading type. A special device was developed as part of an innovative testing setup, aimed at reducing both the cost and preparation time of the specimens. This paper also describes the comparison of the test results with design provisions from Eurocode 4. The test results show a marginal influence of the type of concrete infill on the monotonic and cyclic behaviour of the members and also allow concluding that Eurocode 4 is conservative in predicting the capacity of the tested specimens. Moreover, it is found that the cross-section slenderness does not have a significant influence on the monotonic and cyclic behaviour of the specimens, pointing out for the possible relaxation of the cross-section slenderness limits currently specified in Eurocodes 4 and 8. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SPA.2013.2.1-01 | Award Amount: 3.21M | Year: 2013

A wide diversity of astrophysical phenomena - from stellar flares in the solar neighborhood to accretion in galactic nuclei at cosmological distances - are characterized by flux and spectral changes on time scales ranging from a fraction of a second to several years. Every day, observing facilities with time-resolved imaging capabilities collect huge amounts of potentially interesting information, which remains mostly unused, stored in data archives. This is especially true in the high energy range of the electromagnetic spectrum, where source variability is very common but the time dimension is seldom systematically exploited. Treasuring on the experience of our European team, we propose an unprecedented program to search and characterize variable sources in the soft X-ray energy range. To do so well exploit the whole database collected by the EPIC cameras onboard the XMM-Newton mission. This will include a search for fast transients, missed by standard image analysis, as well as a search and characterization of variability in tens of thousands of sources on a broad range of time scales. X-ray results will be complemented by multiwavelength characterization of all previously undetected sources. Phenomenological classification of variable sources will also be performed. Our project will certainly unveil new and unexpected classes of sources (as has always been the case when a new region in parameter space has been explored) enhancing the potential of discovery of the XMM-Newton mission, in itself the most productive observatory of the European Space Agency. All our results will be made publicly available, together with new analysis tools. Our variable source catalogue will trigger reanalysis of other databases as well as new observations and will become a reference in the forecoming era of large surveys. As the most sensitive search for variability ever performed, it may raise new questions in high-energy astrophysics and serve as a pathfinder for future missions.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-SA | Phase: INCO.2011-6.2 | Award Amount: 615.61K | Year: 2012

This proposal aims to reinforce the cooperation with Europes neighbours in the context of the European Research Area. The An-Najah National University (NNU) in the Palestinian-administered Areas (PS) will coordinate the proposal, supported by the European Centre for Training and Research in Earthquake Engineering (EUCENTRE) and the Institute for Advanced Study of Pavia (IUSS) in Italy. The supporting action of EUCENTRE will lead NNU to become a globally competitive and experienced research centre in the field of seismic risk mitigation and disaster management. EUCENTRE will collaborate with NNU to devise a research strategy capable of increasing the scope and visibility of NNU at the national and international levels. The supporting action of IUSS will be fundamental for the training activities for students and young researchers. The long experience of IUSS in the field of earthquake engineering and engineering seismology post-graduate courses will represent a distinguishing feature of the international vocation of the SASPARM activities. The project activities are identified with the goal to create a research infrastructure and to develop and enhance international cooperation with PS in the field of scientific technology and capacity building, i.e. human resources, research policy, networks of researchers and research institutes. In an international framework the proposed activities will lead NNU to a fruitful cooperation with EU. At national level an enhancement of capability will ensure PS to gain a centre prepared to respond to earthquake engineering needs of the local community. The latter target will be pursued by enhancing the capability of NNU for training activity in the field of earthquake engineering. Furthermore, a higher visibility of NNU will encourage researchers to compete internationally in terms of scientific excellence (e.g., acquiring and participating in EU Framework projects related to seismic risk reductions) and increase their incentives to continue their research activities in PS. By developing a comprehensive research strategy, the significant strengthening of NNU role will be fundamental in meeting the national socio-economic challenges and regional and international research activities.

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