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Valverde J.C.,IMIDA Acuicultura | Hernandez M.D.,IMIDA Acuicultura | Garcia-Garrido S.,IFAPA Centro Agua del Pino Ctra | Estefanell J.,Instituto Universitario Of Sanidad Animal guridad Alimentaria | And 4 more authors.
Aquaculture International | Year: 2012

In this study, HPTLC was used to make a quantitative analysis of the total lipid content (TL dry weight) and their classes in 39 samples, including molluscs, crustaceans, fish and meals in an attempt to identify those most suitable for formulating diets for cephalopods by reference to an index of nutritional quality (OI LC: Oser's index modified for lipid classes). All the crustaceans analysed (<10% TL), fish from artisanal fisheries such as Boops boops, Gadus poutassou, Mugil sp. and Gadus minutus (<10% TL) and the plant meals (TL < 5%) would cause fewer digestive problems than the fish that were a by-catch from fish farms (B. boops or Sparus aurata), pelagic species (Sardina pilchardus or Trachurus trachurus) or krill meal, which are characterised by their high lipid content (20-60% TL). These latter feeds were associated with neutral lipids, mainly triglycerides during the summer. Mytilus galloprovincialis, Carcinus maenas, G. poutassou, Mugil sp., S. pilchardus and G. minutus had a more appropriate lipid content and profile during the winter, when they showed a higher OI LC due to the greater variety of polar lipid classes they contained. Phospholipids like PS, PI and PE seem to be limiting nutrients in cephalopods because of their high content (78-542, 41-309 and 152-2,114 mg/100 g, respectively) compared with the rest of the samples. None of the meals analysed showed a good nutritional balance per se and should only be used in conjunction with other foods. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source


Valverde J.C.,IMIDA Acuicultura | Martinez-Llorens S.,Polytechnic University of Valencia | Vidal A.T.,Polytechnic University of Valencia | Jover M.,Polytechnic University of Valencia | And 5 more authors.
Aquaculture International | Year: 2013

The amino acid composition and protein levels of three species of cephalopods (Octopus vulgaris, Loligo gahi and Todarodes sagittatus), the natural diets of common octopus (O. vulgaris) and different kinds of meals were determined in order to optimise the content of these nutrients in artificial feeds. Arginine, leucine and lysine were the most abundant essential amino acids in cephalopods, while glutamate and aspartate represented the main non-essential amino acids. Arginine and leucine were the limiting amino acid in most samples, with maximum Chemical Score values for mussel (79-98 %), squid (84 %) and crustaceans (65-91 %); medium for fish (41-70 %); and minimum for meals (29-64 %). Mussel, squid, crustaceans and fish showed a high essential amino acid index according to Oser (OI: 88-99 %) suggesting a suitable amino acid balance. The protein from animal meals (fish and krill) covered all the essential amino acids except arginine and lysine in fish meal. The vegetable meal presented the worst amino acid balance (OI: 74-89 %) with several deficiencies in essential amino acids, including arginine, threonine, lysine and methionine. Supplementation with arginine or leucine and protein complementation of crustaceans and bivalves with fish or animal meal are proposed as alternatives for improving the performance of protein in feed for cephalopods. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source


Cerezo Valverde J.,IMIDA Acuicultura | Tomas Vidal A.,Polytechnic University of Valencia | Martinez-Llorens S.,Polytechnic University of Valencia | Pascual M.C.,University of Santiago de Compostela | And 5 more authors.
Aquaculture Nutrition | Year: 2015

A quantitative analysis of the essential mineral content (mg kg-1 dry weight) was carried out in 31 samples, including molluscs, crustaceans, fish and meals in an attempt to identify those most suitable for formulating cephalopod diets. The mineral ratios (MR: content in the test sample/content in whole Octopus vulgaris) were used as index of nutritional quality. Both crustaceans and oysters presented an optimal profile that covered the macro- and microelements composition of O. vulgaris. These samples differed from the rest by their higher Ca, Mg, B, Cu and Zn contents based on a principal component analysis. Fish were deficient in macroelements, such as Na (MR: 70-420 g kg-1) and Mg (MR: 220-690 g kg-1), but would be good source of K, Ca and P. Most fish were also deficient in Fe, Zn and Cu, although the copper content would be the most affected (MR: 3-130 g kg-1). Fish and krill meals showed a high content of Ca and P, although both would be deficient in Na (MR: 440-470 g kg-1) and Cu (130-540 g kg-1), along with K, Fe and Zn in krill and Mg and B in fish. Among the plant meals, sunflower and soybean were the most appropriate, presenting higher total content of minerals and MRs above 1000 g kg-1 for all minerals, except Na, Cu and Zn. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source


Estefanell J.,Instituto Universitario Of Sanidad Animal guridad Alimentaria | Roo J.,Instituto Universitario Of Sanidad Animal guridad Alimentaria | Guirao R.,CANEXMAR | Izquierdo M.,Instituto Universitario Of Sanidad Animal guridad Alimentaria | Socorro J.,Instituto Universitario Of Sanidad Animal guridad Alimentaria
Aquacultural Engineering | Year: 2012

Some benthic cephalopods are considered potential candidates to diversify marine aquaculture, as they show fast growth and high market price. Most research on cephalopod culture is currently focusing on the development of specific enrichments and compound feeds, while little research has been conducted in order to test new rearing systems for cephalopods. The rigid characteristic of the floating cages commonly used for the ongrowing of Octopus vulgaris has restricted their use to calm water conditions (estuaries and harbors). Such sites are scarce and highly demanded, especially by the tourism industry; therefore the development of O. vulgaris grow out at these locations competes with touristic interests. The present study was set to compare the biological performance of O. vulgaris reared in a benthic cage (2m 2) as opposed to the traditional floating cage (2.5m 2), during two ongrowing trials. Initial rearing density was 10kgm -3 and octopuses (892±125g) were fed on bogue Boops boops, discarded from fish farms, for 60-67 days. High growth (1.8-1.9% day -1) and high survival (91-97%) were observed, regardless of the rearing system, and led to best biomass increment (178-212%) and food conversion rates (2.3-2.6) ever recorded for O. vulgaris under industrial rearing conditions. These results underline the adequacy of the benthic cage for the ongrowing of this species, and also the potential of aquaculture discarded fishes, particularly bogue, as a single diet for this species. High growth rates obtained and the high lipid content of bogue (44% dry weight) suggest efficient lipid utilization in this species. Proximate composition and fatty acid profile in octopus muscle was not affected by the rearing system. High dietary lipid content was not reflected in muscle proximate composition, which showed high protein (87% dw) and low lipid content (5% dw) by the end of the experimental period. Farmed octopus showed high levels of n-3 HUFA (42%), which should enhance its value for the consumers. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source


Estefanell J.,Instituto Universitario Of Sanidad Animal guridad Alimentaria | Roo J.,Instituto Universitario Of Sanidad Animal guridad Alimentaria | Fernandez-Palacios H.,Instituto Universitario Of Sanidad Animal guridad Alimentaria | Izquierdo M.,Instituto Universitario Of Sanidad Animal guridad Alimentaria | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the World Aquaculture Society | Year: 2012

Recently most research on cephalopod culture has focused on the development of new specific enrichments for paralarvae and compound feeds for juveniles and sub-adults. However, little research has been conducted in order to test new rearing systems, specifically designed to meet the particularities of these species. This experiment was set to compare the biological performance of Octopus vulgaris reared under traditional group conditions in floating cages (5 m 3) and individually in net cages (80 L), in two successive ongrowing trials. Octopuses (1565 ± 263 g) were fed a mixed diet containing crab and fish during 60 d. In general, higher mortality was observed in octopus reared under group conditions (28.1-36.7%) rather than individually (0-12.5%), related to breeding behavior and to weight dispersion along both trials. This led to highest biomass increment in octopus reared individually. However, the group rearing system had a positive effect on growth, reflecting in higher biomass increment and food conversion rates until 40-50 d of rearing. Accordingly, in order to maximize profitability of traditional group on growing, periodic grading and selection of males during the reproductive period are recommended. In addition, no difference in proximate composition and fatty acid profile was found in muscle regardless of rearing system. © by the World Aquaculture Society 2012. Source

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