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Feher-Voelger A.,CSIC - Institute of Natural Products and Agrobiology | Borges-Gonzalez J.,CSIC - Institute of Natural Products and Agrobiology | Carrillo R.,CSIC - Institute of Natural Products and Agrobiology | Morales E.Q.,CSIC - Institute of Natural Products and Agrobiology | And 3 more authors.
Chemistry - A European Journal | Year: 2014

New pyranoid ε-sugar amino acids were designed as building blocks, in which the carboxylic acid and the amine groups were placed in positions C2 and C3 with respect to the tetrahydropyran oxygen atom. By using standard solution-phase coupling procedures, cyclic homooligomers containing pyranoid ε-sugar amino acids were synthesized. Conformation analysis was performed by using NMR spectroscopic experiments, FTIR spectroscopic studies, X-ray analysis, and a theoretical conformation search. These studies reveal that the presence of a methoxy group in the position C4 of the pyran ring produces an important structural change in the cyclodipeptides. When the methoxy groups are present, the structure collapses through interresidue hydrogen bonds between the oxygen atoms of the pyran ring and the amide protons. However, when the cyclodipeptide lacks the methoxy groups, a U-shape structure is adopted, in which there is a hydrophilic concave face with four oxygen atoms and two amide protons directed toward the center of the cavity. Additionally, we found important evidence of the key role played by weak electrostatic interactions, such as the five-membered hydrogen-bonded pseudocycles (C5) between the amide protons and the ether oxygen atoms, in the conformation equilibrium of the macrocycles and in the cyclization step of the cyclic tetrapeptides. To fold or not to fold: ε-Sugar amino acids (ε-SAAs) have proven to be privileged scaffolds for the synthesis of conformationally modulated cyclic peptides. An appendix on the sugar moiety helps to modulate the conformation equilibrium between the folded and unfolded structures by modification of the internal network of noncovalent interactions (see figure). © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source

Diaz J.G.,Instituto Universitario Of Bio Organica Antonio Gonzalez | Herz W.,Florida State University
Phytochemistry | Year: 2010

An ethanol extract of the aerial parts of Delphinium gracile DC. yielded five flavonol glycosides quercetin-3-O-{[β-d-xylopyranosyl (1 → 3)-4-O-(E-p-caffeoyl)-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl (1 → 6)][β-d-glucopyranosyl (1 → 2)]}-β-d-glucopyranoside (1), quercetin-3-O-{[β-d-xylopyranosyl (1 → 3)-4-O-(E-p-coumaroyl)-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl (1 → 6)][β-d-glucopyranosyl (1 → 2)]}-β-d-glucopyranoside (2), quercetin-3-O-{[β-d-xylopyranosyl (1 → 3)-4-O-(Z-p-coumaroyl)-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl (1 → 6)][β-d-glucopyranosyl (1 → 2)]}-β-d-glucopyranoside (3), kaempferol-3-O-{[β-d-glucopyranosyl (1 → 3)-4-O-(E-p-coumaroyl)-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl (1 → 6)][β-d-glucopyranoside-7-O-(4-O-acetyl)-α-l-rhamnopyranoside (4) kaempferol-3-O-{[β-d-glucopyranosyl (1 → 3)-4-O-(E-p-coumaroyl)-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl (1 → 6)][β-d-glucopyranoside-7-O-(4-O-acetyl)-α-l-rhamnopyranoside (5) in addition to 4-(β-d-glucopyranosyloxy)-6-methyl-2H-pyran-2-one (6) and rutin. Structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Diaz J.G.,Instituto Universitario Of Bio Organica Antonio Gonzalez | De Paz P.P.,University of La Laguna | Herz W.,Florida State University
Phytochemistry Letters | Year: 2010

The water soluble portion of the aerial parts of Hypericum canariense L. yielded after acetylation the 5,7,3′4′-tetra- and 7,3′4′-triacetates of a new flavonoid 5,7,3′,4′- tetrahydroxy-3-O-β-d-(methyl 2,3,4-triacetoxypyranuronyl)-quercetin, the 3′-acetate of a new flavonoid 3′-hydroxy-5,7,4′-trimethoxy-3- O-β-d-(methyl 2,3,4-triacetoxypyranuronyl)-quercetin, the 3′-acetate and the 3′5′-diacetate of the new flavonoid 5,3′dihydroxy-7, 4′-dimethoxy-3-β-d-(methyl 2,3,4-triacetoxypyranuronyl)-quercetin, the xanthone derivative mangiferin 2′,3′,4′,6′- tetraacetate and the latter's new 1,3,6,7′-tetramethoxy, 1,3,6-trimethoxy-4-acetoxy and 1,7-diacetoxy-3,6-dimethoxy analogs. © 2010 Phytochemical Society of Europe. Source

Berkov S.,University of Barcelona | Berkov S.,Agrobioinstitute Dragan Tzankov Blvd. | Viladomat F.,University of Barcelona | Codina C.,University of Barcelona | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Mass Spectrometry | Year: 2012

Galanthamine-type alkaloids produced by plants of the Amaryllidaceae family are potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. One of them, galanthamine, has been marketed as a hydrobromide salt for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. In the present work, gas chromatography with electron impact mass spectrometry (GC-EIMS) fragmentation of 12 reference compounds isolated from various amaryllidaceous plants and identified by spectroscopic methods (1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance, circular dichroism, high-resolution MS (HRMS) and EIMS) was studied by tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) and accurate mass measurements (GC-HRMS). The studied compounds showed good peak shape and efficient GC separation with a GC-MS fragmentation pattern similar to that obtained by direct insertion probe. With the exception of galanthamine-N-oxide and N-formylnorgalanthamine, the galanthamine-type compounds showed abundant [M]+. and [M-H]+ ions. A typical fragmentation pattern was also observed, depending on the substituents of the skeleton. Based on the fragmentation pathways of reference compounds, three other galanthamine-type alkaloids, including 3-O-(2′-butenoyl)sanguinine, which possesses a previously unelucidated structure, were identified in Leucojum aestivum ssp. pulchelum, a species endemic to the Balearic islands. GC-MS can be successfully applied to Amaryllidaceae plant samples in the routine screening for potentially new or known bioactive molecules, chemotaxonomy, biodiversity and identification of impurities in pharmaceutical substances. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source

Carrillo R.,CSIC - Institute of Natural Products and Agrobiology | Morales E.Q.,CSIC - Institute of Natural Products and Agrobiology | Martin V.S.,Instituto Universitario Of Bio Organica Antonio Gonzalez | Martin T.,CSIC - Institute of Natural Products and Agrobiology | Martin T.,Instituto Universitario Of Bio Organica Antonio Gonzalez
Journal of Organic Chemistry | Year: 2013

Positive cooperativity between host conformational equilibria and guest binding has been widely reported in protein receptors. However, reported examples of this kind of cooperativity in synthetic hosts are scarce and largely serendipitous, among other things because it is hard to envision systems which display this kind of cooperativity. In order to shed some light on the correlation between conformational equilibria of free host and guest binding, selected structural modifications have been performed over a family of nonpreorganized hosts in order to induce conformational changes and to analyze their effect on the binding affinity. The conformational effect was evaluated by a theoretical conformational search and correlated with the ability of the receptors. All data suggest that those receptors that display the best association constants are able to sample folded conformations analogous to the conformational requirements for the binding of the guests. On the contrary, for those receptors where folded conformers are scarce, then the association constant and enantioselectivity clearly drop. © 2013 American Chemical Society. Source

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