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Lisenfeld U.,University of Granada | Lisenfeld U.,Instituto Universitario Carlos Fisica Teorica mputacional | Appleton P.N.,California Institute of Technology | Cluver M.E.,University of Cape Town | And 4 more authors.
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2014

Context. Galaxies in Hickson Compact Groups (HCGs) are believed to experience morphological transformations from blue, star-forming galaxies to red, early-type galaxies. Galaxies with a high ratio between the luminosities of the warm H2 to the 7.7 μm PAH emission (so-called Molecular Hydrogen Emission Galaxies, MOHEGs) are predominantly in an intermediate phase, the green valley. Their enhanced H2 emission suggests that the molecular gas is affected in the transition.Aims. We study the properties of the molecular gas traced by CO in galaxies in HCGs with measured warm H2 emission in order to look for evidence of the perturbations affecting the warm H2 in the kinematics, morphology and mass of the molecular gas.Methods. We observed the CO(1-0) emission of 20 galaxies in HCGs and complemented our sample with 11 CO(1-0) spectra from the literature. Most of the galaxies have measured warm H2 emission, and 14 of them are classified as MOHEGs. We mapped some of these galaxies in order to search for extra-galactic CO emission. We analyzed the molecular gas mass derived from CO(1-0), MH2, and its kinematics, and then compared it to the mass of the warm molecular gas, the stellar mass and star formation rate (SFR).Results. Our results are the following. (i) The mass ratio between the CO-derived and the warm H2 molecular gas is in the same range as found for field galaxies. (ii) Some of the galaxies, mostly MOHEGs, have very broad CO linewidths of up to 1000 km s-1 in the central pointing. The line shapes are irregular and show various components. (iii) In the mapped objects we found asymmetric distributions of the cold molecular gas. (iv) The star formation efficiency (=SFR/MH2) of galaxies in HCGs is very similar to isolated galaxies. No significant difference between MOHEGs and non-MOHEGs or between early-type and spiral galaxies has been found. In a few objects the SFE is significantly lower, indicating the presence of molecular gas that is not actively forming stars. (v) The molecular gas masses, MH2, and ratios MH2/LK are lower in MOHEGs (predominantly early-types) than in non-MOHEGs (predominantly spirals). This trend remains when comparing MOHEGs and non-MOHEGs of the same morphological type.Conclusions. We found differences in the molecular gas properties of MOHEGs that support the view that they have suffered (or are presently suffering) perturbations of the molecular gas, as well as a decrease in the molecular gas content and associated SFR. Higher resolution observations of the molecular gas are needed to shed light on the nature of these perturbations and their cause. © ESO, 2014.


Aguerri J.A.L.,Institute of Astrophysics of Canarias | Aguerri J.A.L.,University of La Laguna | Mendez-Abreu J.,Institute of Astrophysics of Canarias | Mendez-Abreu J.,University of La Laguna | And 33 more authors.
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2015

Context. The bar pattern speed (Ωb) is defined as the rotational frequency of the bar, and it determines the bar dynamics. Several methods have been proposed for measuring Ωb. The non-parametric method proposed by Tremaine & Weinberg (1984, ApJ, 282, L5; TW) and based on stellar kinematics is the most accurate. This method has been applied so far to 17 galaxies, most of them SB0 and SBa types. Aims. We have applied the TW method to a new sample of 15 strong and bright barred galaxies, spanning a wide range of morphological types from SB0 to SBbc. Combining our analysis with previous studies, we investigate 32 barred galaxies with their pattern speed measured by the TW method. The resulting total sample of barred galaxies allows us to study the dependence of Ωb on galaxy properties, such as the Hubble type. Methods. We measured Ωb using the TW method on the stellar velocity maps provided by the integral-field spectroscopy data from the CALIFA survey. Integral-field data solve the problems that long-slit data present when applying the TW method, resulting in the determination of more accurate Ωb. In addition, we have also derived the ratio R of the corotation radius to the bar length of the galaxies. According to this parameter, bars can be classified as fast (R < 1.4) and slow (R > 1.4). Results. For all the galaxies, R is compatible within the errors with fast bars. We cannot rule out (at 95% level) the fast bar solution for any galaxy. We have not observed any significant trend between R and the galaxy morphological type. Conclusions. Our results indicate that independent of the Hubble type, bars have been formed and then evolve as fast rotators. This observational result will constrain the scenarios of formation and evolution of bars proposed by numerical simulations. © ESO, 2015.


Florido E.,University of Granada | Florido E.,Instituto Universitario Carlos Fisica Teorica mputacional | Perez I.,University of Granada | Perez I.,Instituto Universitario Carlos Fisica Teorica mputacional | And 3 more authors.
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2012

Aims. This is the third paper of a series devoted to studying the properties of bars from long-slit spectroscopy to understand their formation, evolution, and influence on the evolution of disk galaxies. In this paper, we aim to determine the gas metallicity distribution of a sample of 20 barred early-type galaxies. We compare the nebular and stellar metallicity distributions to attempt to infer the origin of the warm gas. Methods. We performed long-slit spectroscopy along the bar and obtained metallicities derived using different calibrations. We compare the nebular emission metallicities derived using different semi-empirical methods. We carry out AGN diagnostic diagrams for data at different radii to determine the radius of influence of the AGN and the nature of the galactic nuclei. We then derive the gas metallicities along the bars and compare our results to the distribution of stellar metallicities in the same regions. Results. Most of the gas emission is centrally concentrated, although 15 galaxies also show emission along the bar. In the central regions, gas oxygen abundances are in the range 12 + log (O/H) = 8.4-9.1. The nebular metallicity gradients are very shallow in the bulge and bar regions. For three galaxies (one of them a low-ionization nuclear emission-line region), the gas metallicities lie well below the stellar ones in the bulge region. These results do not depend on the choice of semi-empirical calibration used to calculate the abundances. We see that the galaxies with the lowest metallicities are those with the largest rotational velocities. Unlike our stellar metallicities, we find no correlation between the nebular abundances and the central velocity dispersion. In most galaxies, the gradient in the gas nebular metallicities in the bulge region is shallower than that for the stellar metallicity. Conclusions. The presence of gas of significantly lower metallicity than the stellar abundances in three of our galaxies, suggests that the gas has an external origin that fuels the present star formation at the center of some early-type barred galaxies. That the bar/disk nebular metallicities are higher than the central ones might indicate that the gas could be accreted via cooling flows instead of radial accretion from gas sitting in the outer parts of the disk. © 2012 ESO.

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