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Ruiz M.,Research Center Marinas | Darriba S.,Instituto Tecnoloxico Para O Control Do Medio Marino Of Galicia Intecmar | Rodriguez R.,Research Center Marinas | Lopez C.,Research Center Marinas
Journal of Invertebrate Pathology | Year: 2013

The aim of the present study was to carry out a survey of parasites and other conditions affecting pod razor clam populations, Ensis siliqua, in two beds from Galicia (NW Spain). In Galicia, the production of E. siliqua has increased in recent years due to the development of specific plans for its exploitation, however few and quite recent pathological studies have been carried out in this species. The results of this study showed the presence of different protozoa as the more prevalent group, especially Nematopsis sp. gregarines, unidentified branchial protozoa, renal coccidia and Trichodina sp. ciliates. Larval stages of trematodes and neoplastic disorders were also observed with lower prevalences.Furthermore, an ultrastructural analysis of two types of unidentified basophilic inclusions, both found in the digestive gland, revealed the presence of icosahedral viral particles and prokaryotic organisms, respectively.None of the parasites detected in E. siliqua from this study was notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and the majority of the symbionts and conditions observed in their tissues did not cause host damage. Nevertheless, parasites like bucephalid digenean sporocysts, viral inclusions, prokaryotic infections, disseminated neoplasm or germinoma detected in some samples could cause moderate or severe damage to the host depending on the intensity of infection. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. Source


Polo D.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Alvarez C.,Instituto Tecnoloxico Para O Control Do Medio Marino Of Galicia Intecmar | Vilarino M.L.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Longa T.,Consello Regulador da Denominacion de Orixe Protexida do Mexillon de Galicia | Romalde J.L.,University of Santiago de Compostela
Food Microbiology | Year: 2014

The efficacy and dynamic of depuration for the removal of hepatitis A virus (HAV) contamination were evaluated under experimental conditions using Manila clams previously subjected to bioaccumulation with this virus. Five independent trials were assayed in a closed experimental system with a total volume of approximately 1750l, using clam batches of 60Kg. The reverse transcriptase-real time PCR (RT-qPCR) technique was utilized for viral quantification. Infectivity assays were conducted at the end of depuration. Although the final viral loads in shellfish after 7 days remained relatively high and still infectious, an average reduction in HAV levels of 1.44 log units (approx. 93.1%) was observed. This reduction showed a two-phase removal kinetic, with an initial rapid reduction of viruses during the first 72h of depuration, with a 0.6 log units (69%) of average decrease in HAV RNA copies/g digestive tissue, and a subsequent stabilization with a slower depuration rate in the remaining days. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Polo D.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Alvarez C.,Instituto Tecnoloxico Para O Control Do Medio Marino Of Galicia Intecmar | Longa T.,Consello Regulador da Denominacion de Orixe Protexida do Mexillon de Galicia | Romalde J.L.,University of Santiago de Compostela
International Journal of Food Microbiology | Year: 2014

The efficacy and kinetic of depuration of hepatitis A virus (HAV) were evaluated under experimental conditions with Mediterranean mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) subjected previously to bioaccumulation processes. Seven independent trials (70kg of mussels each) were performed in a closed experimental system using two different water temperatures (13 and 17°C) during 7days. The real time RT-PCR technique with TaqMan probes was used for viral quantification. Qualitative infectivity assays were conducted to test the presence of infectious viral particles at the end of the depuration period. The depuration trials showed an average reduction of HAV levels of aproximately 1.1 Log units (>90%). However, the average final viral loads in shellfish samples remain at relatively high levels (6.5×103 RNA copies/g digestive tissue) and still infectious. A positive correlation between the initial and the final numbers of the viral RNA copies was observed. The reduction of HAV showed a two-phase removal kinetic, an initial logarithmic trendline, with a rapid reduction of viruses during the first 24-48h of depuration, and a subsequent stabilization with a slower depuration rate until the end of the process. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source


Diaz P.A.,FARO | Diaz P.A.,Austral University of Chile | Ruiz-Villarreal M.,Spanish Institute of Oceanography | Pazos Y.,Instituto Tecnoloxico Para O Control Do Medio Marino Of Galicia Intecmar | And 2 more authors.
Harmful Algae | Year: 2016

Dinophysis acuta is a frequent seasonal lipophilic toxin producer in European Atlantic coastal waters associated with thermal stratification. In the Galician Rías, populations of D. acuta with their epicentre located off Aveiro (northern Portugal), typically co-occur with and follow those of Dinophysis acuminata during the upwelling transition (early autumn) as a result of longshore transport. During hotter than average summers, D. acuta blooms also occur in August in the Rías, when they replace D. acuminata. Here we examined a 30-year (1985-2014) time series of D. acuta from samples collected by the same method in the Galician Rías. Our main objective was to identify patterns of distribution and their relation with climate variability, and to explain the exceptional summer blooms of D. acuta in 1989-1990. A dome-shaped relationship was found between summer upwelling intensity and D. acuta blooms; cell maxima were associated with conditions where the balance between upwelling intensity and heating, leading to deepened thermoclines, combined with tidal phase (3 days after neap tides) created windows of opportunity for this species. The application of a generalized additive model based on biological (D. acuta inoculum) and environmental predictors (Cumulative June-August upwelling CUIJJA, average June-August SSTJJA and tidal range) explained more than 70% of the deviance for the exceptional summer blooms of D. acuta, through a combination of moderate (35,000-50,000 m3 s-1 km-1) summer upwelling (CUIJJA), thermal stratification (SSTJJA > 17 °C) and moderate tidal range (~2.5 m), provided D. acuta cells (inoculum) were present in July. There was no evidence of increasing trends in D. acuta bloom frequency/intensity nor a clear relationship with NAO or other long-term climatic cycles. Instead, the exceptional summer blooms of 1989-1990 appeared linked to extreme hydroclimatic anomalies (high positive anomalies in SST and NAO index), which affected most of the European Atlantic coast. © 2015 The Authors. Source


Yebra-Biurrun M.C.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Carro-Marino N.,Instituto Tecnoloxico Para O Control Do Medio Marino Of Galicia Intecmar
Talanta | Year: 2010

A flow-injection system is developed for Cu, Mn and Zn partitioning in seawater by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The first approach is where the trace metal species are fractionated in situ, but analysis is performed by using a flow injection manifold in the laboratory. This operational mode is used for the determination of the dissolved labile metallic fraction and is based on the elution of this fraction from a minicolumn packed with a chelating resin containing iminodiacetic acid groups (Serdolit Chelite Che) loaded in situ with the sample. The second is used for the determination of total dissolved concentrations of trace metals. This last mode is based on the retention/preconcentration of total dissolved metals on the chelating resin after on-line sonolysis of seawater samples acidified with diluted nitric acid to breakdown the metal-organic matter complexes. The figures of merit for Cu, Mn and Zn determinations in both fractions are given and the obtained values are discussed. The fractionation scheme is applied to the analysis of coastal seawater samples collected in Galicia (Northwest, Spain). The results of fractionation showed that Mn and Zn are mainly in the labile fraction, while Cu was mainly present in the organic fraction. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

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