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Iliescu S.,Romanian Academy of Sciences | Zubizarreta L.,Instituto Tecnologico Of La Energia | Plesu N.,Romanian Academy of Sciences | Macarie L.,Romanian Academy of Sciences | And 2 more authors.
Chemistry Central Journal | Year: 2012

Background: Phosphorus-containing high performance polymers have aroused wide interest, mainly due to good mechanical properties and their excellent fire resistance. The flexibility of synthetic polyphosphoesters allows the development of polymers in order to obtain solid polymer electrolytes for rechargeable lithium batteries based on solid films with superior fire resistance.Results: Novel linear Phosphonate-PEG polymers were synthesized by solution polycondensation of 4-chlorophenyldichlorophosphonate as a linking agent and poly(ethylene glycol)s with different molecular weights in the presence of triethylamine or 1-methylimidazole as acid scavenger. The yields were between 54% and 88% and inherent viscosity between 0.18-0.48 dl/g. Molar masses, Mn were about 26300 g/mol for polyphosphonates with PEG 2000 and 4600 g/mol for polyphosphonates with PEG 200. The LOI values for these polymers and membranes are in the range of 26-29. The membranes based on polyphosphonate with PEG 200 and 2000 showed conductivity between 6 × 10-8 S.cm-1 and 6 × 10-7 S.cm-1 at room temperature and total ionic transference number between 0.87- 0.96. The evolution of conductivity vs. temperature is linear.Conclusions: 1-methylimidazole was found to be better HCl scavenger than triethylamine, and allowed higher yields and more eco-friendly synthesis of the Phosphonate-PEG polymers for SPE. These polymers and membranes based on these polymers showed good LOI values and indicate an improvement of the safety of lithium batteries. The membranes present conductivities around 6 × 10-7 S.cm-1at room temperature and total ionic transference number is higher for membranes based on polymers with high EG unit content. Best results yield 88%, inherent viscosities 0.48 dl/g and Mn 26000 were obtained with 1-methylimidazole and PEG 2000. These membranes based on these polymers showed good LOI values (in the range 26-29%) and indicate an improvement of the safety of lithium batteries. © 2012 Iliescu et al.; licensee Chemistry Central Ltd. Source


Iliescu S.,Romanian Academy of Sciences | Augusti M.-G.,Instituto Tecnologico Of La Energia | Fagadar-Cosma E.,Romanian Academy of Sciences | Plesu N.,Romanian Academy of Sciences | And 4 more authors.
Molecules | Year: 2012

This paper is directed towards the development of safe, and thermally stable solid polymer electrolytes. Linear phosphorus-containing (co)polyesters are described, including their synthesis, thermal analysis, conductivity, and non-flammability. Polycondensation of phenylphosphonic dichloride (PPD) with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG 12000) with and without bisphenol A (BA) was carried out using solid-liquid phase transfer catalysis. Potassium phosphate is used as base. Yields in the range of 85.0-88.0%, and inherent viscosities in the range of 0.32-0.58 dL/g were obtained. The polymers were characterized by gel permeation chromatography, FT-IR, 1H- and 31P-NMR spectroscopy and thermal analysis. Their flammability was investigated by measuring limiting oxygen index values. The polymers are flame retardants and begin to lose weight in the 190 °C-231 °C range. Solid phosphorus- containing (co)polyesters were complexed with lithium triflate and the resulting ionic conductivity was determined. Conductivities in the range of 10 -7-10 -8 S cm -1 were obtained. Source


Rey-Boue A.B.,Technical University of Cartagena | Garcia-Valverde R.,Technical University of Cartagena | Ruz-Vila F.D.A.,Technical University of Cartagena | Torrelo-Ponce J.M.,Instituto Tecnologico Of La Energia
Energy Conversion and Management | Year: 2012

A novel methodology is presented in this paper, for the design of the Power and Control Subsystems of a 3-phase Photovoltaic Grid-Connected system in an easy and comprehensive way, as an integrative approach. At the DC side of the Power Subsystem, the Photovoltaic Generator modeling is revised and a simple model is proposed, whereas at the AC side, a vector analysis is done to deal with the instantaneous 3-phase variables of the grid-connected Voltage Source Inverter. A d-q control approach is established in the Control Subsystem, along with its specific tuned parameters, as a vector control alternative which will allow the decoupled control of the instantaneous active and reactive powers. A particular Case of Study is presented to illustrate the behavior of the design methodology regarding the fulfillment of the Photovoltaic plant specifications. Some simulations are run to study the performance of the Photovoltaic Generator together with the exerted d-q control to the grid-connected 3-phase inverter, and some experimental results, obtained from a built flexible platform, are also shown. The simulations and the experimental results validate the overall performance of the 3-phase Photovoltaic Grid-Connected system due to the attained unitary power factor operation together with good power quality. The final validation of the proposed design methodology is also achieved. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Benitez I.,Instituto Tecnologico Of La Energia | Diez J.-L.,Polytechnic University of Valencia | Quijano A.,Instituto Tecnologico Of La Energia | Delgado I.,Instituto Tecnologico Of La Energia
Electric Power Systems Research | Year: 2016

As the analysis of electrical loads is reaching data measured from low voltage power distribution networks, there is a need for the main agents involved in the operation and management of the power grids to segment the end users as a function of their shapes of daily energy consumption or load profiles, and to obtain patterns that allow to classify the users in groups based on how they consume the energy.However, this analysis is usually limited to the analysis of single days. Since the smart metering data are time series formed by sequential measurements of energy through each hour or quarter of hour of the day, and also through each day, thanks to the implementation of Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) and the Smart Grid technologies, it becomes clear that the analysis of the data needs to be extended to consider the dynamic evolution of the consumption patterns through days, weeks, months, seasons, and even years.This is the objective of the present work. A new framework is presented that addresses the dynamic clustering, visualization and identification of temporal patterns in load profiles time series, fulfilling the detected gap in this area. The present development is a generic framework that allows the clustering and visualization of load profiles time series applying different classical clustering algorithms. A novel dynamic clustering algorithm is also presented, based on an initial segmentation of the energy consumption time series data in smaller surfaces, and the computation of a similarity measure among them applying the Hausdorff distance. Following, these developments are presented and tested on two dataset of energy consumption load profiles from a sample of residential users in Spain and London. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. Source


Diaz-Calleja R.,Polytechnic University of Valencia | Llovera-Segovia P.,Polytechnic University of Valencia | Llovera-Segovia P.,Instituto Tecnologico Of La Energia | Dominguez J.J.,Polytechnic University of Valencia | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics | Year: 2013

Electromechanical actuation is a growing field of research today both for applications or theoretical modelling. The interaction between electric and mechanical constraints has been used for electromechanic actuators or generators based on elastomers. From a theoretical point of view, many recent works have been focused on uniaxial or biaxial stretching of elastomer plates with compliant electrodes. Free stretching or pre-strained samples have been theoretically modelled, mainly by neo-Hookean equations. In this work, we present theoretical and experimental results of electromechanic actuation of an elastomer (the widely used 3M VHB4910, an acrylic foam) in a pre-strained case and a free case. Experimental characterization of the material shows that the Ogden model gives the best accurate fitting of mechanical properties. Thus, a theoretical development based on this model is carried out in order to obtain the curves describing the electromechanical behaviour of the material. The mechanical instability related to wrinkling of the material is theoretically calculated and experimentally verified. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd. Source

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