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The concept of Food Safety Objective (FSO) has mostly been applied to understanding the effects of handling and processing on levels of bacterial pathogens in foods, but it is also applicable to the formation and removal of mycotoxins. This paper provides a general overview of how the concept of FSO can be used to understand increases and decreases in mycotoxin levels in foods, on the basis that international regulatory limits are equivalent to an FSO. Detailed information is provided on the ecology of the formation of aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxin A and deoxynivalenol in major commodities. Methods in use to reduce levels of these mycotoxins, to meet an FSO, are then detailed. Each of the major mycotoxin - food combinations is visualised using a novel graphical method. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Rossetti L.,Instituto Tecnologia Of Alimentos | Langman L.,Instituto Tecnologia Of Alimentos | GrigioniG.M.,Instituto Tecnologia Of Alimentos | GrigioniG.M.,University of Moron | And 7 more authors.
Australian Journal of Dairy Technology

In order to determine the effect feeding differences on natural antioxidant vitamin delivery, two contrasting diets, lucerne (ALF) and sorghum silage (SS ), were analysed. Diets showed different profiles for fat-soluble vitamins. ALF was higher in α-tocopherol, β- carotene and retinol than the SS diet. On the contrary, SS diet was higher in γ- and δ- tocopherol, due to the soy expeller contribution in these isomers. The ALF diet favoured higher milk production and protein yield in comparison to SS , whereas the fat content was the opposite (p<0.01). The composition of the diets was partially reflected in milk. The ALF diet favoured the incorporation of α-tocopherol, retinol, β-carotene and vitamin D<3< into raw milk. Meanwhile, a less abundant isomer of vitamin E, γ-tocopherol, was significantly higher in the SS than the ALF milk and d-tocopherol was not detected. In addition, the ALF diet also promoted higher antioxidant activity. The ferric reduction antioxidant power (FRAP) was significantly higher in ALF than in SS milk, however oxidation determined by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS ) was similar for both types of milk. Also, no differences in ascorbic acid concentration were detected in either type of milk. The ALF and SS milks were clearly separated (100%) by their antioxidant status and odour profiles as a function of feeding into SS and ALF groups when the biochemical variables and sensor LY 2/gCTI were analysed together. Two linear Fischer's discriminant functions were defined according to dietary treatments using β-carotene and sensor LY 2/gCTI . The success rate of correct classification of each sample was 100%, either for the original cases or after crossvalidation (p<0.0001). The use of an electronic nose proved to be a useful instrumental method to discriminate the odour profile of milk samples with a different antioxidant status. Source

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