Time filter

Source Type

Jaillard B.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Barry-Etienne D.,Alcina | Colinas C.,Center Tecnologic Forestal Of Catalonia | Colinas C.,University of Lleida | And 11 more authors.
Forest Systems | Year: 2014

Aim of study: The program "Typology of truffle stations in the Pyrenean Regions" aimed to define the ecological conditions and culture practices that favor Tuber melanosporum growth and fruiting in this area. Area of study: Navarra, Catalonia, Midi-Pyrénées and Languedoc-Roussillon. Material and methods: The program was based on the survey of 212 wild and cultivated truffle beds of evergreen oaks (Quercus ilex). The data collected in the field consisted of photographs, samples of soil, roots and mycorrhizae, and information on cultural practices followed by truffle growers. Main results: (i) truffle soils are alkaline, from neutral, dolomitic, to moderately or very calcareous soils; (ii) truffle soils are light, well-structured and stable to water immersion; (iii) mycelium that colonizes roots survives in suboptimal conditions, but it does not necessarily bear ascocarps. Finally our results suggest that T. melanosporum is a relatively ubiquitous fungus able to grow, or at least to persist, in a wide range of physical and chemical soil conditions. We propose a probabilistic model of the environment favorable for fruiting, built around a two-dimensional graph with an axis for the chemical conditions, like soil alkalinity, and another axis for the physical conditions, like soil structure. Research highlights: Soil alkalinity and structure allow to built a convenient representation of the ecological capacity of a place to be good T. melanosporum habitat, and thus of the probability for truffle growers to harvest truffles according to the environmental properties of their truffle orchards.


Lahoz I.,Instituto Tecnico Y Of Gestion Agricola | Macua J.I.,Instituto Tecnico Y Of Gestion Agricola
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2012

The objective of this work is to determine whether there are differences between artichoke varieties in the content in bioactive substances. The different varieties of artichoke were selected from the collection owned by the ITGA of Navarre. The artichokes were cultivated in the experimental farm of the ITGA in Cadreita according to the Integrated Production standards for this culture in Navarre. The varieties used in this study were: 'Lorca', 'Madrigal', 'Opal', 'A-106', 'VP-45', 'Selección ITGA', 'Salanquet', 'Clon 303', 'INIA D', 'Macau' and 'Campagnano'. Samples of these varieties were collected and taken to the CNTALaboratorio del Ebro, in May 2008, where they were analyzed to determine the major biochemical compounds. For each variety, various parameters have been determined: vitamins (C, E and B9), carotenoids (lutein, zeaxanthin, lycopene, a- carotene and β-carotene), polyphenols (quercetin, rutin, resveratrol, myricetin, catechin, epicatechin, caffeic acid and gallic acid) and simple sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose and lactose) quantified by high performance liquid chromatography. Moreover, general parameters have also been determined: total antioxidant capacity (TAC) by the diphenyl-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) test, and free and total polyphenols by Folin-Ciocalteu assay. Finally, the dietary fibre content of samples was determined by enzymatic digestion. The results show that the compounds allowing the distinction between artichoke varieties analyzed are vitamin E, lutein, glucose, TAC, free and total polyphenols. 'Madrigal' reached the highest content in fat-soluble compounds (vitamin E and lutein) and 'VP-45' is the most interesting variety in terms of concentration in antioxidants. © ISHS.


Lahoz I.,Instituto Tecnico Y Of Gestion Agricola | Macua J.I.,Instituto Tecnico Y Of Gestion Agricola | Urmeneta I.,GUTARRA
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2012

The objective of this work is to determine whether there are differences between cardoon varieties in the content of bioactive substances. Different varieties of cardoon were selected from the collection owned by the ITGA of Navarre. The varieties used in this study were: 'Blanco de Peralta', 'El Cortijo', 'Lleno de Espana', 'Rojo de Ágreda', 'Blanco de Valencia', 'Verde de Peralta', 'Bianco Inerme', 'Blanco Plain Inerme'. Harvesting was done on 7th April 2008. Samples of these varieties were analyzed to determine the major biochemical compounds. For each variety, various parameters have been determined: vitamins (C, E and B9), carotenoids (lutein, zeaxanthin, lycopene, a-carotene and β-carotene), polyphenols (quercetin, rutin, resveratrol, myricetin, catechin, epicatechin, caffeic acid and gallic acid) and simple sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose, maltose and lactose) quantified by high performance liquid chromatography. Other parameters were analyzed such as total antioxidant capacity (TAC) by the diphenyl-picryl hydrazyl test (DPPH), and free and total polyphenols by Folin-Ciocalteu assay. Finally, the dietary fibre content of the samples was determined by enzymatic digestion. The results show that the compounds allowing the distinction between cardoon varieties analyzed, are gallic acid, glucose, fructose, TAC, free polyphenols, polyphenols and dietary fibre. The maximum concentration for each of these parameters was observed in different varieties. 'Inerme Bianco' presents greater concentration of gallic acid and polyphenols, 'Blanco de Peralta' contains higher sugar content, 'Verde de Peralta' has the greatest antioxidant capacity and 'Rojo de Agreda' presents greater concentration of free polyphenols. Finally, 'Lleno de Espana' has the highest percentage of dietary fibre. Therefore, we can't conclude which cardoon variety is better than another from the standpoint of the content in bioactive compounds; we should particularly investigate the bioactive compound in which we are interested. © ISHS.


Pagnotta M.A.,University of Tuscia | Saccardo F.,University of Tuscia | Temperini O.,University of Tuscia | Rey N.A.,University of Tuscia | And 24 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2012

Considering the Cynara cardunculus germplasm there is a miss of information: most populations have not been characterised and many of them, taking their name from the cultivation area, are synonymous. In the frame of the European project CYNARES, sponsored by the AGRGENRES programme, European C. cardunculus accessions have been characterized at the morphological, biochemical and molecular level. Moreover, disease resistance, post-harvest behaviour and industrial-food processes are studied with regard to quality and safety objectives. Morphological characterisation was carried out in different fields/countries since C. cardunculus germplasm, belonging to different typologies, has different environmental requirements. The descriptors developed by IPGRI and UPOV were used with a view to identifying and validating the most useful field descriptors. The most promising material is also being tested for fresh handling and minimal processing. The ready-to-eat artichoke products, with high organoleptic quality of raw material, must be accompanied by a long-enough postharvest shelflife of the fresh and ready-to-eat commodity. In the core collection, biochemical characterization of the different artichoke/cardoon genotypes is being undertaken by evaluating the flowerhead content of polyphenols (mono- and di-caffeoylquinic acids and flavonoids), sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose) and fructans (inulin). Molecular characterization was conducted on a European core collection constituted by 556 genotypes, utilizing markers of different typologies (AFLP, ISSR, SSR). Molecular data fingerprinting of single lines have made it easier to register/patent socio-economically important varieties. This characterization is fundamental for rationalizing the European germplasm. Further cluster analysis obtained with different characterization data will be utilized to define an European core collection for artichoke. © ISHS.


Lasa B.,Public University of Navarra | Iraneta I.,Instituto Tecnico Y Of Gestion Agricola | Muro J.,Public University of Navarra | Irigoyen I.,Public University of Navarra | Tejo P.M.A.,IdAB UPNA CSIC
Scientia Agricola | Year: 2011

Nitrate leaching as a result of excessive application of N-fertilizers and water use is a major problem of vulnerable regions. The farming of maize requires high N fertilization and water inputs in Spain. Isotopic techniques may provide information on the processes involved in the N and C cycles in farmed areas. The aim of this work was studying the impact of sprinkler and furrow irrigation and N input on maize (Zea mays L.) yields, and whether isotopic composition can be used as indicator of best farming practices. Trials were set up in Tudela (Spain) with three rates of N fertilization (0, 240 and 320 kg urea-N ha-1) and two irrigation systems (furrow and sprinkler). Yield, nitrogen content, irrigation parameters, N fate and C and N isotope composition were determined. The rate of N fertilization required to obtain the same yield is considerably higher under furrow irrigation, since the crop has less N at its disposal in furrow irrigation as a result of higher loss of nitrogen by NO- 3-N leaching and denitrification. A lower δ13C in plants under furrow irrigation was recorded.The δ15N value of plant increased with the application rate of N under furrow irrigation.


Migliaro D.,Technical University of Cartagena | Di Marco P.G.,Technical University of Cartagena | Esteban A.,Technical University of Cartagena | Fernandez J.A.,Technical University of Cartagena | And 4 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2012

In this study, the genetic diversity of fifty individuals of cardoon, Cynara cardunculus L., from ten Spanish cultivated accessions, was evaluated using morphological traits and inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) DNA data. Molecular analysis was carried out using the ISSR technique with thirty primers. Out of these, eight were polymorphic among the accessions. A total of 2053 scorable and repeatable DNA fragments were generated, of which 1320 (64.3%) were polymorphic. In total, 56 ISSR loci were detected with repeatability across 50 cultivars. The average ISSR locus frequency was 7.0 loci per primer, ranging from 5 to 11 loci per primer. The data obtained from the different ISSR markers were used to construct a dendrogram on the basis of a similarity genetic distance matrix, using the UPGMA algorithm. Four quantitative characteristics from the plant and six quantitative and three qualitative characteristics from the leaf stalk were measured. The most productive varieties were 'Verde de Peralta', 'Verde de Calahorra' and 'Lleno de España', with a yield of 76.9, 74.7 and 68.2 t ha-1, respectively. The least productive cardoon variety was the 'Rojo de Agreda' with 41.9 t ha-1. This work has showed a remarkable level of genetic variation between and within Spanish cardoon cultivars. All morphological traits were subjected to a Principal Component Analysis in order to visualize the morphological variability of the analysis genotypes and the first axis explains 31.2% of the inertia and it was defined by main rib height, while the second axis explains 25.2% defined by productivity. © ISHS.


Macua J.I.,Instituto Tecnico Y Of Gestion Agricola | Lahoz I.,Instituto Tecnico Y Of Gestion Agricola | Santos A.,Instituto Tecnico Y Of Gestion Agricola | Urmeneta I.,Conservas Gutarra
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2012

Spain is the second artichoke producing country in the world, and its production is based, almost exclusively, on the clonal propagation variety 'Blanca de Tudela'. In Navarre, where the 'Blanca de Tudela' originates from, the most usual planting season is the first ten days of August and the plant spends the winter in rosette form without producing heads. However, there are also some early plantings which produce in autumn. Autumn earliness is a very important aspect for this crop reaching the highest price by head on the fresh market during this time. In the main Spanish producing zones of Murcia and the Valencian Community (region), which enjoy a temperate climate, there is a tendency to bring the planting dates forward in order to achieve earlier production, although other cultivation techniques are currently being researched. This piece of work analyses the influence of the planting season on the root-taking, earliness and yield of the 'Blanca de Tudela' variety in three planting periods (from early July to the end of August), cultivated annually using drip irrigation over two crop years. It has been observed that when the planting date is brought forward, production in autumn is achieved, but in the end total commercial production is greater in the later planting at the end of August, but without significant differences between seasons. Winter frosts have an increased negative influence on production in the early plantings as they mostly affected the plants in which harvesting had begun, thus delaying harvesting in spring with respect to the later plantings. © ISHS.


Macua J.I.,Instituto Tecnico Y Of Gestion Agricola | Lahoz I.,Instituto Tecnico Y Of Gestion Agricola | Diaz E.,Instituto Tecnico Y Of Gestion Agricola | Urmeneta I.,Conservas Gutarra
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2012

In Spain the cardoon is a minority crop. Navarre is the main producing area where, in 2008, 356 ha were devoted to its cultivation, and 17,730 t were produced. 80-85% of this production is destined for the area's agroindustry, for canning as well as for freezing. The cardoon is a very important crop within the agri-foodstuff industry in Navarre and its expansion is associated with the growth in the activity of the industry. In Navarre the 'Verde de Peralta' variety population from the Ribera Alta area of Navarre is mostly used. It is characterised by compactness and low stalk fibrousness. This cultivar adapts very well not only to market place consumption, but also to industry. The traditional growing season has been planting in July for harvesting in December, although the expansion of this crop has made it necessary to increase its productive period by programming the harvests by means of different planting dates. This work analyses the agronomic behaviour and industrial suitability of the native 'Verde de Peralta' variety in different planting seasons during two crop years. In the results obtained it can be observed that the lowest production corresponds to the plantings at the end of July and during the first few days of August, due mainly to the fact that a lower weight of cardoon is obtained and not due to the number of commercial units, which is similar in all the cultivation seasons. With later plantings at the end of August the cardoon fails to reach the size suitable for tying up, a cultivation technique used in Navarre for stalk blanching. © ISHS.


Macua J.I.,Instituto Tecnico Y Of Gestion Agricola | Lahoz I.,Instituto Tecnico Y Of Gestion Agricola | Diaz E.,Instituto Tecnico Y Of Gestion Agricola | Urmeneta I.,Conservas Gutarra
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2012

The cardoon is a crop with a great tradition in Navarre and is mostly destined for industrial consumption. What is mainly used in Navarre is the 'Verde de Peralta' variety population, which is very well suited not only to market place consumption, but also to industry. This work assesses the productivity and industrial suitability of different cardoon vegetable material of Spanish origin in the traditional growing conditions in Navarre. The varieties studied were: 'Blanco de Peralta', 'Lleno de España', 'Lumbier', 'Verde de Tafalla', 'Blanco de Valencia', 'Verde de Calahorra', 'Verde de Peralta', 'Rojo de Agreda', 'Rojo de Corella', 'Verde de Huerva', 'Del Cortijo' and 'Sarramian'. The most productive varieties turned out to be 'Verde de Peralta', 'Verde de Calahorra' and 'Lleno de España', which likewise were the ones with the highest percentage of cardoons of great weight -in excess of 6 kg. The 'Rojo de Corella' variety stood out as being not very productive. For their industrial suitability the ones that stand out are 'Blanco de Peralta' and 'Verde de Peralta', as they have a high usable percentage of premium quality cardoon. By contrast, the red-stalked varieties, 'Rojo de Agreda' and 'Rojo de Corella', provided a low percentage of cardoon for industrial processing, both premium and second grade. © ISHS.


Fernandez J.A.,Technical University of Cartagena | Migliaro D.,Technical University of Cartagena | Esteban A.,Technical University of Cartagena | Macua J.I.,Instituto Tecnico Y Of Gestion Agricola | And 4 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2012

The artichoke is a traditional crop of the Region of Murcia (SE Spain). The most commonly used cultivar is 'Blanca de Tudela', obtained by vegetative reproduction. The aim of this work was to compare the agronomic behaviour of ten European artichoke cultivars with vegetative reproduction. The stumps were transplanted into field at the experimental farm of Technical University of Cartagena at La Palma (Cartagena) on August 2007 in a randomized block design with 3 replications. The harvesting was conducted once a week and head weight and diameter were registered. The plants were also morphologically characterized in the second crop year, according to UPOV protocol for globe artichoke. In most of cultivars the second year yield was higher than in the first year. The highest total yield was obtained with the 'Blanca de Tudela' clones 'INIA B' and 'Clon 303', while 'Cabeza de Gato', 'Moretto' and 'Macau' obtained the lowest. The earliest artichoke cultivars were the 'Blanca de Tudela' clones, which began harvesting in early November, while 'Moretto', 'Macau' and 'Salambo' were the latest cultivars. According the UPGMA cluster analysis the artichoke cultivars could be classified into 4 groups. The two first component of PCA (whiteness and head shape) explained around 60% of artichoke morphological variability. © ISHS.

Loading Instituto Tecnico Y Of Gestion Agricola collaborators
Loading Instituto Tecnico Y Of Gestion Agricola collaborators