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Timmermans W.,University of Twente | Van Der Tol C.,University of Twente | Timmermans J.,University of Twente | Ucer M.,University of Twente | And 40 more authors.
Acta Geophysica | Year: 2014

The REFLEX 2012 campaign was initiated as part of a training course on the organization of an airborne campaign to support advancement of the understanding of land-atmosphere interaction processes. This article describes the campaign, its objectives and observations, remote as well as in situ. The observations took place at the experimental Las Tiesas farm in an agricultural area in the south of Spain. During the period of ten days, measurements were made to capture the main processes controlling the local and regional land-atmosphere exchanges. Apart from multi-temporal, multi-directional and multi-spatial space-borne and airborne observations, measurements of the local meteorology, energy fluxes, soil temperature profiles, soil moisture profiles, surface temperature, canopy structure as well as leaf-level measurements were carried out. Additional thermo-dynamical monitoring took place at selected sites. After presenting the different types of measurements, some examples are given to illustrate the potential of the observations made. © 2014 Versita Warsaw and Springer-Verlag Wien


Garcia-Ibarra A.,CSIC - Center of Edafology and Applied Biology of the Segura | Sanchez-Navarro J.A.,CPI | Soler A.,Instituto Murciano Of Investigacion Y Desarrollo Agrario Y Alimentario Imida | Munoz R.M.,Instituto Tecnico Agronomico Provincial Of Albacete Itap | And 3 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2012

"Viruela" disease produces important malformations in apricot fruits that become non-commercial. In this study, 35 traditional apricot orchards cultivated with the old Spanish cultivar 'Búlida' affected by "viruela" were analyzed in four different areas of the southeast of Spain, for two years. Leaf and fruit samples from four trees in each orchard with and without "viruela" symptoms were collected and analyzed by single RT-PCR against Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV). In addition, the multiplex RT-PCR test for the detection of other virus including, American plum latent pit virus (APLPV), Apple mosaic virus (ApMV), Apricot latent virus (ApLV), Plum bark necrosis and stem pitting-associated virus (PBNSPaV), Plum pox virus (PPV), Prune dwarf virus (PDV), and Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV), was used. Finally, molecular hybridization and RT-PCR tests were assayed for the detection of Hop Stunt Viroid (HSVd) and Peach latent mosaic viroid (PLMVd). All the fruits showing "viruela" symptoms were ACLSV positive by RTPCR. In addition, other viruses as PNRSV, PBNSPaV, ApLV, PDV and ApMV, were detected. HSVd was also detected in the 98% of the fruits assayed. These results suggest that ACLSV is related to the "viruela" disease. However, since HSVd was also detected in these samples, we cannot confirm that ACLSV is the only factor responsible for this disease. These results also indicate the high rate of virus infection in the traditional 'Búlida' orchards and suppose the first report of ApLV and PBNSPaV in apricot in Spain.


Timmermans W.J.,University of Twente | Tol C.V.D.,University of Twente | Timmermans J.,University of Twente | Ucer M.,University of Twente | And 40 more authors.
Acta Geophysica | Year: 2015

The REFLEX 2012 campaign was initiated as part of a training course on the organization of an airborne campaign to support advancement of the understanding of land-atmosphere interaction processes. This article describes the campaign, its objectives and observations, remote as well as in situ. The observations took place at the experimental Las Tiesas farm in an agricultural area in the south of Spain. During the period of ten days, measurements were made to capture the main processes controlling the local and regional land-atmosphere exchanges. Apart from multi-temporal, multi-directional and multi-spatial space-borne and airborne observations, measurements of the local meteorology, energy fluxes, soil temperature profiles, soil moisture profiles, surface temperature, canopy structure as well as leaf-level measurements were carried out. Additional thermo-dynamical monitoring took place at selected sites. After presenting the different types of measurements, some examples are given to illustrate the potential of the observations made. © 2014 Institute of Geophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences.


Martinez-Garcia P.J.,CSIC - Center of Edafology and Applied Biology of the Segura | Manas F.,Instituto Tecnico Agronomico Provincial Of Albacete Itap | Lopez P.,Instituto Tecnico Agronomico Provincial Of Albacete Itap | Dicenta F.,CSIC - Center of Edafology and Applied Biology of the Segura | Ortega E.,CSIC - Center of Edafology and Applied Biology of the Segura
Euphytica | Year: 2011

'Marcona' and 'Desmayo Largueta' are the most widely cultivated almonds in Spain, representing around 27% of the total production and 34% of the entire almond growing surface. The excellent quality of their kernels makes them highly appreciated and demanded worldwide. However, due to their self-incompatibility, they should be grown along with cross-compatible cultivars, whose lower kernel quality often reduces the economic benefits of the plantation. In addition, although they are cross-compatible, are not good candidates to share the orchard since 'Desmayo Largueta' usually flowers earlier than 'Marcona'. Therefore, to optimize orchard yield, genotypes with overlapping flowering times, cross-compatible with these cultivars and of similar fruit and ripening characteristics are desirable. In order to find suitable pollinators of these cultivars, five 'Marcona' and four 'Desmayo Largueta'-type selections from "Instituto Técnico Agronómico Provincial (ITAP) de Albacete" (Spain) were characterized for flowering time and for self and cross-incompatibility. The results obtained showed that the nine ITAP selections were self-incompatible, and that three and one were promising candidates as pollinators of 'Marcona' and 'Desmayo Largueta', respectively. The S-haplotypes of two ITAP selections were characterized by cloning and sequencing their pistil S (S-RNase) and pollen S (SFB) genes. The results also showed that Sf RNase does not have a mutated histidine in C2 region, and detected differences with other previously published sequences for S23RNase and SFB23 allele. Moreover, the sequence for almond SFB27 allele is reported here for the first time. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Munoz R.M.,Instituto Tecnico Agronomico Provincial Of Albacete Itap | Lerma M.L.,Instituto Tecnico Agronomico Provincial Of Albacete Itap | Lunello P.,Instituto Tecnico Agronomico Provincial Of Albacete Itap | Schwartz H.F.,Colorado State University
Journal of Plant Pathology | Year: 2014

Iris yellow spot virus (IYSV) is an emerging pathogen of onion and other Allium crops worldwide. This study focused on the incidence, epidemiology and yield effects of IYSV in bulb onion crops in Spain. Surveys were conducted from 2005 to 2009. Samplings were performed in 101 onion fields with 2,677 onion plants tested in total. Onion transplants, winter onion crops and potential alternative hosts were also sampled. IYSV infection showed a temporal pattern of spread, and the proportion of sites with IYSV-infected plants began to increase rapidly after August. Two early infected fields were detected, and were the only ones with severe economic losses (50-60% crop reduction) due to IYSV. In both cases, onions were grown from IYSV-infected transplants imported from another region. There was no evidence that weeds and volunteer onion can act as alternative host. The use of virus (and vector)-free transplants must play an important role in IYSV management strategies by delaying early-season infection of onion in Spain.


Lopez-Corcoles H.,Instituto Tecnico Agronomico Provincial Of Albacete Itap | Brasa-Ramos A.,University of Castilla - La Mancha | Montero-Garcia F.,University of Castilla - La Mancha | Romero-Valverde M.,University of Castilla - La Mancha | Montero-Riquelme F.,University of Castilla - La Mancha
Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2015

Phenological studies are important for understanding the influence of climate dynamics on vegetative growth, flowering and fruiting on plants and can be used in many scientific subjects, such as Agronomy, Botany and Plant Biology, but also Climatology as a result of the current global interest in climate change monitoring. The purpose of the detailed specific culture descriptions of the principal growth stages in plants is to provide an instrument for standardization of data recording. To date, there was no coding method to describe developmental stages on saffron plant (Crocus sativus L.). Because of the increasing world-wide interest on this crop, a novel growth development code based on the BBCH extended scale is proposed in this paper. Six principal growth stages were set up, starting from sprouting, cataphylls and flowers appearance, plant appearance and development, replacement corms development, plant senescence and corm dormancy. Each principal growth stage is subdivided into secondary growth stages. Descriptive keys with illustrations are included to make effective use of the system. © 2015 INIA.


Gramaje D.,CSIC - Institute for Sustainable Agriculture | Manas F.,Instituto Tecnico Agronomico Provincial Of Albacete Itap | Lerma M.L.,Instituto Tecnico Agronomico Provincial Of Albacete Itap | Munoz R.M.,Instituto Tecnico Agronomico Provincial Of Albacete Itap | And 2 more authors.
Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research | Year: 2014

Background and Aims: Hot-water treatment (HWT) has been shown to be effective for the control of several endogenous and exogenous grapevine pests and diseases in dormant grapevine cuttings and young rooted vines. Little is still known, however, about the long-term effect of HWT on plant viability under field conditions. The effect of HWT on the performance of dormant plants in a four-growing seasons study was investigated. Methods and Results: The effect of HWT at 53°C for 30min on shoot mass, yield parameters and composition of must in dormant grafted plants (Tempranillo cultivar grafted onto 110 Richter rootstock) was evaluated. Eight bundles of 20 grafted plants were assigned to HWT, and eight additional bundles of 20 untreated grafted plants were prepared as a control (non-HWT). Dormant grafted plants were immediately planted in two field sites in April 2007. Shoot fresh mass was evaluated during winter in four consecutive growing seasons. Yield parameters and must composition were evaluated in the third and fourth growing seasons. In general, there was no significant difference in shoot mass at pruning, yield parameters and must components between treatments, with the exception of the must total soluble solids and volumetric mass in the fourth growing season. Conclusions: The findings obtained in this study indicate that HWT at 53°C for 30min did not affect plant viability, yield parameters and the main components of must composition, and could be successfully used commercially. Significance of the Study: This study represents the first approach to investigate the long-term effect of HWT on plant development, yield and composition of must under field conditions. It suggests that the success of HWT depends not only on the most adequate protocol applied by nurseries, but also on management practices before, during and after the propagation process that could affect the viability of HWT grapevine propagating material. © 2013 Australian Society of Viticulture and Oenology Inc.


Gracia M.P.,CSIC - Aula Dei Experimental Station | Mansour E.,CSIC - Aula Dei Experimental Station | Casas A.M.,CSIC - Aula Dei Experimental Station | Lasa J.M.,CSIC - Aula Dei Experimental Station | And 10 more authors.
Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2012

The Spanish Barley Breeding Program is carried out by four public research organizations, located at the most representative barley growing regions of Spain. The aim of this study is to evaluate the program retrospectively, attending to: i) the progress achieved in grain yield, and ii) the extent and impact of genotype-by-environment interaction of grain yield. Grain yields and flowering dates of 349 advanced lines in generations F8, F9 and F10, plus checks, tested at 163 trials over 11 years were analized. The locations are in the provinces of Albacete, Lleida, Valladolid and Zaragoza. The data are highly unbalanced because the lines stayed at the program for a maximum of three years. Progress was estimated using relative grain yield and mixed models (REML) to homogenize the results among years and locations. There was evident progress in the program over the period studied, with increasing relative yields in each generation, and with advanced lines surpassing the checks in the last two generations, although the rate of progress was uneven across locations. The genetic gain was greater from F8 to F9 than from F9 to F10. The largest non-purely environmental component of variance was genotype-by-location-by-year, meaning that the genotype-by-location pattern was highly unpredictable. The relationship between yield and flowering time overall was weak in the locations under study at this advanced stage of the program. The program can be continued with the same structure, although measures should be taken to explore the causes of slower progress at certain locations.


Igartua E.,CSIC - Aula Dei Experimental Station | Mansour E.,CSIC - Aula Dei Experimental Station | Mansour E.,Zagazig University | Cantalapiedra C.P.,CSIC - Aula Dei Experimental Station | And 10 more authors.
Molecular Breeding | Year: 2015

This study is a retrospective analysis of an elite cross from the Spanish National Barley Breeding Program. This was the most successful cross produced in the breeding program in the past 20 years. The progeny from this cross has been investigated at two points in the program, before and after selection, through the analysis of allelic frequencies at a number of genetic loci with molecular markers. Shifts in allelic frequencies after selection allowed the identification of genomic regions with selection footprints likely due to the breeding process. The cross was replicated in three different years, and therefore, the three progenies represent different selection histories but, in all cases, were preferentially selected compared to the lines from other crosses used in the program. The progenies were sampled at two generations, before conscious selection (F2) and after six generations of selection (F8). The F2 plants were genotyped with microsatellites, whereas 31 F8 lines were surveyed for SNP and presence/absence variation polymorphisms using a genotyping-by-sequencing system (DArTseq). The DArTseq markers were aligned to the barley physical map, and, after curation, over 3,000 were still available for the analysis. Overall, 15 genomic regions in the F8 lines had allele frequencies beyond chosen thresholds, indicating selection, eight toward parent Orria and seven toward Plaisant. These selection footprints partially validated QTLs detected through classical linkage mapping in a RIL population of the same cross. These validated selection footprints convey useful information for barley breeding, either through marker-assisted selection or through genomic selection. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

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