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Phillips J.B.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | Jorge P.E.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | Jorge P.E.,Instituto Superior Of Psicologia Aplicada | Muheim R.,Lund University
Journal of the Royal Society Interface | Year: 2010

Magnetic compass orientation by amphibians, and some insects, is mediated by a light-dependent magnetoreception mechanism. Cryptochrome photopigments, best known for their role in circadian rhythms, are proposed to mediate such responses. In this paper, we explore light-dependent properties of magnetic sensing at three levels: (i) behavioural (wavelength-dependent effects of light on magnetic compass orientation), (ii) physiological (photoreceptors/ photopigment systems with properties suggesting a role in magnetoreception), and (iii) molecular (cryptochrome-based and non-cryptochrome-based signalling pathways that are compatible with behavioural responses). Our goal is to identify photoreceptors and signalling pathways that are likely to play a specialized role in magnetoreception in order to definitively answer the question of whether the effects of light on magnetic compass orientation are mediated by a light-dependent magnetoreception mechanism, or instead are due to input from a non-light-dependent (e.g. magnetite-based) magnetoreception mechanism that secondarily interacts with other light-dependent processes. © 2010 The Royal Society.

Pechorro P.,University of Lisbon | Maroco J.,Instituto Superior Of Psicologia Aplicada | Poiares C.,University of Lisbon | Vieira R.X.,University of Lisbon
International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology | Year: 2013

The main objectives of the present study were to validate a Portuguese version of the Antisocial Process Screening Device-Self-Report and to evaluate the predictive importance of some constructs in discriminating between inmate delinquent youth and community youth. With a total of 760 participants, male (n = 543) and female (n = 217), divided in an inmate forensic sample (n = 250) and a community sample (n = 510), the authors were able to demonstrate psychometric properties that justify its use with the Portuguese juvenile population, in terms of factor structure, internal consistency, temporal stability, convergent validity, divergent validity, concurrent validity, and cutoff score. The predictive importance of psychopathic traits, self-reported delinquent behavior, and behavior problems on the prediction of sample membership (forensic vs. community) was established by binary logistic regression. © The Author(s) 2013.

Phillips J.B.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | Muheim R.,Lund University | Jorge P.E.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | Jorge P.E.,Instituto Superior Of Psicologia Aplicada
Journal of Experimental Biology | Year: 2010

In terrestrial organisms, sensitivity to the Earth's magnetic field is mediated by at least two different magnetoreception mechanisms, one involving biogenic ferromagnetic crystals (magnetite/maghemite) and the second involving a photo-induced biochemical reaction that forms long-lasting, spin-coordinated, radical pair intermediates. In some vertebrate groups (amphibians and birds), both mechanisms are present; a light-dependent mechanism provides a directional sense or 'compass', and a nonlight- dependent mechanism underlies a geographical-position sense or 'map'. Evidence that both magnetite- and radical pairbased mechanisms are present in the same organisms raises a number of interesting questions. Why has natural selection produced magnetic sensors utilizing two distinct biophysical mechanisms? And, in particular, why has natural selection produced a compass mechanism based on a light-dependent radical pair mechanism (RPM) when a magnetite-based receptor is well suited to perform this function? Answers to these questions depend, to a large degree, on how the properties of the RPM, viewed from a neuroethological rather than a biophysical perspective, differ from those of a magnetite-based magnetic compass. The RPM is expected to produce a light-dependent, 3-D pattern of response that is axially symmetrical and, in some groups of animals, may be perceived as a pattern of light intensity and/or color superimposed on the visual surroundings. We suggest that the lightdependent magnetic compass may serve not only as a source of directional information but also provide a spherical coordinate s stem that helps to interface metrics of distance, direction and spatial position. © 2010. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

Marques A.,University of Lisbon | de Matos M.G.,University of Lisbon | de Matos M.G.,Instituto Superior Of Psicologia Aplicada
International Journal of Public Health | Year: 2016

Objective: To report the prevalence and trends of the BMI of Portuguese adolescents in 2002, 2006 and 2010. Methods: 4138 boys and 4472 girls self-reported weight, height, physical activity, perception of health and life satisfaction. Results: For adolescents aged 11–13 years, the prevalence of overweight/obesity decreased from 23.5 % in 2002 to 20.7 % in 2010, using IOTF cutoff points, and decreased from 32.4 to 28.4 % between 2002 and 2010 using WHO cutoff points. For adolescents aged 15–17 years, the prevalence increased from 13.9 to 16.8 % between 2002 and 2010 using IOTF cutoff, and increased from 14.8 % in 2002 to 18.2 % in 2010 when using WHO cutoff points. Although the prevalence decreased among younger adolescents and increased among older ones, the differences were not significant. Physical activity in the last 7 days (p < 0.05), better life satisfaction (p < 0.05) and perception of health (p < 0.001) predicted lower body mass index z score. Conclusions: Overall, there have been no significant changes in overweight and obesity prevalence in Portuguese adolescents from 2002 to 2010. However, the prevalence remains high and therefore it is important to continue surveillance. © 2015, Swiss School of Public Health (SSPH+).

Taborsky B.,University of Bern | Oliveira R.F.,Instituto Superior Of Psicologia Aplicada | Oliveira R.F.,Instituto Gulbenkian Of Ciencia
Trends in Ecology and Evolution | Year: 2012

'Social competence' refers to the ability of an individual to optimise its social behaviour depending on available social information. Although such ability will enhance social interactions and thus raise Darwinian fitness, its evolutionary and ecological significance has been largely ignored. Social competence is based on behavioural flexibility. We propose that the study of social competence requires an integrative approach that aims to understand how the brain translates social information into flexible behavioural responses, how flexibility might be constrained by the developmental history of an individual or by trade-offs with other (ecological) competences, and how social plasticity feeds back on fitness. Finally we propose a hypothesis of how social competence can become a driver of social evolution. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

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