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Marchesan E.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Sarzi Sartori G.M.,Federal University of Santa Maria | de Avila L.A.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Machado S.L.O.,Federal University of Santa Maria | And 4 more authors.
Ciencia Rural | Year: 2010

The rice-growing activity is conducted out with intensive use of agrochemicals, which, depending on the management and rainfall can reach rivers. The study aimed to determine the residues of herbicides clomazone, quinclorac, propanil, bentazone, 2,4-D and imazethapyr and insecticides carbofuran and fipronil in the Vacacaí and Vacacaí-Mirim rivers, located in the Central Depression of Rio Grande do Sul, in the crop of 2003/04 untill 2007/08. Samples were collected from November to February (rice growing season). Analysis of herbicides and carbofuran were performed by HPLC-DAD and fipronil by GC-ECD. During 2003/04, in both rivers, the herbicide clomazone, 2,4-D and propanil were the most frequent in water samples. In 2004/05, the quinclorac was detected in many samples and in 2005/06 and 2006/07 season's fipronil was the most common pesticide in the samples in Vacacaí and Vacacaí-Mirim rivers. In the 2007/08 crop, there were less residues of pesticides in Vacacaí and Vacacaí-Mirim rivers. There is presence of pesticides used in rice farming in the Vacacaí and Vacacaí-Mirim rivers during the rice crop, especially among those analyzed, the herbicides clomazone and quinclorac and the insecticide fipronil.

The objective of this work was to evaluate the selectivity of residual herbicides applied at increasing rates, under pre-emergence condition, to common bean crop (Phaseolus vulgaris) during the early period of the vegetative phase. The experiment was arranged in a randomized design under greenhouse conditions, with the treatments in a two-factorial scheme, using five replicates per treatment. The common bean cultivar IPR Graúna was used as a reagent of the treatments. Factor A was composed by the herbicides, and Factor B, by the rates. The herbicides were alachlor, dimethenamid, S-metolachlor, pendimethalin, and trifluralin, and the rates corresponded to 0, 100, 150, 200, and 300% of the maximum label rate for use in the common bean. The variables applied were plantlet emergence, visual intoxication and dry mass of the common bean, respectively, at 05, 20, and 25 days after emergence. Alachlor was not selective to the common bean, while dimethenamid, S-metolachlor, pendimethalin, and trifluralin were selective when sprayed up to the maximum rate. The level of selectivity of dimethenamid and S-metolachlor varied with the rate applied, while the level of selectivity of trifluralin and pendimethalin did not change.

This work evaluated the effects of residual herbicides, applied in crop pre-emergence, on the reduction of Alexander grass (Urochloa plantaginea) infestation in the common bean. Two field experiments were conducted at Eldorado do Sul, RS/Brazil: one using the bean cultivar UFT-06 (Red group), and the other using IPR Graúna (Black group). The experiments were arranged in a randomized block design, with four replicates, and the treatments consisted of four herbicides, at two rates (kg i.a. ha-1), as follows: pendimethalin and trifluralin (1.2 and 1.4), and s metolachlor and dimethenamid (1.4 and 1.6). Control and shoot mass of Alexander grass were assessed at 20 and 40 days after crop emergence, which includes the critical period of weed interference. All residual herbicides reduced Alexander grass infestation during this period, and the best weed control was obtained with trifluralin herbicide in both experiments. To successfully reduce Alexander grass infestation with residual herbicides, weed management actions must be taken during common bean post-emergence.

Genro Jr. S.A.,Instituto Rio Grandense do Arroz IRGA | Marcolin E.,Instituto Rio Grandense do Arroz IRGA | Anghinoni I.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul
Revista Brasileira de Ciencia do Solo | Year: 2010

As a result of high flooded rice yields obtained in more recent years and the high crop response to fertilization in southern Brazil, fertilizer recommendations were flexibilized to meet different yield expectations. As these recommendations were poorly supported by research results, this study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of these recommendations for the dryseeded rice system in the rice cultivation regions of the State. Thirteen field experiments were conducted at nine locations: four in the 2004/2005 and nine in the 2005/2006 growing seasons with the following treatments: 1. Control (without fertilization); 2. Recommendation to acchieve yield up to 6.0 Mg ha-1); 3. For yields of 6.0-9.0 Mg ha-1; 4. For yields of 9.0-12.0 Mg ha-1), and 5. For yields of more than 12.0 Mg ha-1). Treatments 2, 3, and 4 represent the official regional fertilizer recommendations for flooded rice. The applied fertilizer rates were defined by the soil fertility status of each location, and treatments were distributed in randomized blocks. Fertilizer recommendations for dry-seeded flooded rice, in spite of resulting in relevant and consistent yield increases (average of 3.2 Mg ha-1), did not achieve the expected yields, which depend on the soil and climate conditions of each location.

da Silva A.A.,Instituto Rio Grandense do Arroz IRGA | Delatorre C.A.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | de Moraes M.G.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul
Ciencia Rural | Year: 2011

Biological systems are governed by the sum of all expressed genes, proteins, metabolites and components of an organism. The analysis of a tissue ionome helps to identify, among others, genes that contribute to a greater or lesser accumulation of essential elements and heavy metals, as well as interaction between metabolic processes. The ionome knowledge, coupled with the use of molecular biology techniques, form a very efficient system for gene mapping, and functional genomic studies, and general characterization of plants physiological status in a given condition. Another interesting process that the ionome study allows to analyse is the interactions among plants' ions and how such ion availability can affect the absorption and use of others. The aim of this review is to present and discuss the ionome as an important tool in the elucidation of several mechanisms involved in absorption, translocation and accumulation of essential and nonessential elements in plant and its relation with their metabolism.

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