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Caldas S.S.,Grande Rio University | Bolzan C.M.,Grande Rio University | Cerqueira M.B.,Grande Rio University | Tomasini D.,Grande Rio University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

A new method for the determination of clomazone, fipronil, tebuconazole, propiconazole, and azoxystrobin in samples of rice paddy soil is presented. The extraction of the pesticides from soil samples was performed by using a modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) method. Some extraction conditions such as salt addition, sample acidification, use of buffer, and cleanup step were evaluated. The optimized method dealt with a single extraction of the compounds under study with acidified acetonitrile, followed by the addition of MgSO4 and NaCl prior to the final determination by liquid chromatography-atmospheric chemical pressure ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. Validation studies were carried out in soil samples. Recoveries of the spiked samples ranged between 70.3 and 120% with relative standard deviation lower than 18.2%. The limits of quantification were between 10 and 50 μg kg-1. The method was applied to the analysis of real samples of soils where rice is cultivated. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

Poletto N.,Instituto Federal Of Educacao | Mundstock C.M.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Grohs D.S.,Instituto Rio Grandense do Arroz | Mazurana M.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul
Bragantia | Year: 2011

Rice development is affected by nitrogen, specially its tillering pattern which is determined by number of tillers. Tillers synchronism with main stem is related to leaves emission rate and both traits affect the number of productive culms potential. Tiller esmission and synchronism of leaf development between main stem and tillers were studied in rice plants (cv IRGA 417) cultivated in a hydroponic solution (Hoagland) under three N concentrations (1, 5 e 10 mmol L-1), each with different proportion of N-NH4+ and N-NO3- (100:0; 75:25; 50:50; 25:75). The different proportions under 1 mmol L-1 were similar for tiller number, synchronism, and productive culms. All traits (tiller number, synchronism and productive culms) were negatively affected when higher levels of N-NH4+ ion (5 and 10 mmol L-1 - 100 and 75% of N ions) were supplied to plants. Nevertheless, when N-NO3- ion was present in at least 50% of the solution, the detrimental effects were not found. When N was at 1 mmol L-1, rice plants tolerate N-NH4+ ion presence, independently of the presence of N-NO3- ion. At higher N concentrations, it is necessary at least 50% of N-NO3- ion in order to avoid detrimental effects on tillering.

Macedo V.R.M.,Instituto Rio Grandense do Arroz | da Silva A.J.N.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte | Cabeda M.S.V.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul
Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agricola e Ambiental | Year: 2010

The reclaimation of physically degraded soils has been done using conservationist systems. However, improvement of soil structure makes then very susceptible to intense deformation when bearing compression through mechanization. The compressibility of a Acrisol, physically degraded and reclaimed, collected in the Agricultural Experimental Station of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, in Eldorado do Sul, RS, in two moisture levels, was evaluated with uniaxial compression tests. The soil compression curve, porosity, soil density and resistance to penetration were determined. The physically reclaimed soil samples were more compressible, noteably at higher moisture levels. After applying stresses from 25 to 500 kPa, the reclaimed samples were very similar to the degraded ones. The low resistance to compression showed by the physically reclaimed soil makes evident the difficulty in making compatible the management of conservationist and upgrading structure systems with agricultural mechanization as practiced today. This also strengthens the necessity in finding alternatives to reduce stresses on soils or to make them able to offer higher resistance to compression.

Heidtmann-Bemvenuti R.,Grande Rio University | Santos Hackbart H.C.D.,Grande Rio University | De Souza M.M.,Grande Rio University | Badiale-Furlong E.,Grande Rio University | And 2 more authors.
Quimica Nova | Year: 2012

The QuEChERS extraction method followed by quantification using HPLC/UV-FL was evaluated for deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEA) determination in natural and parboiled rice and their fractions (bran and husk). The comparison between QuEChERS and partition with acetonitrile extraction showed that the first one was better. It presented higher recovery (91% for DON, 105% for ZEA) wih precision ranging from 1.5 to 18.6%. The limits of quantification were 22.2 g kg-1 for DON and 4.3 g kg-1 for ZEA. DON and ZEA showed higher levels in endosperm of parboiled rice (8 e 111.7 g kg-1, respectively) when compared to natural rice.

To verify the relation between aluminum and silicon in the growth of two maize genotypes resistant and sensitive at toxicity aluminum was carried out in the greenhouse a bioensaio involving the treatments presence and absence of aluminum and silicon in corn genotypes. The treatments were compound for solutions of 2.0 mmol L -1 calcium (CaCl 2) without and with aluminum (0.025 mmol L -1 AlCl 3) and silicon (0.14 mmol L -1, to part solution SiO 2). The experiment was carried out for five days and for assess the treatments effect were evaluated root length, silicon, aluminum and calcium concentrations in the shoots and in the roots and the mitotic index of meristematic cells of roots. Silicon reduced the toxic effect of aluminum in corn genotypes as evaluated through root length.

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