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Salazar M.,Complutense University of Madrid | Lorente M.,Complutense University of Madrid | Lorente M.,Institute Investigaciones Sanitarias San Carlos IdISSC | Garcia-Taboada E.,Complutense University of Madrid | And 11 more authors.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids | Year: 2013

Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major active ingredient of marijuana, and other cannabinoids inhibit tumor growth in animal models of cancer. This effect relies, at least in part, on the up-regulation of several endoplasmic reticulum stress-related proteins including the pseudokinase tribbles homologue-3 (TRIB3), which leads in turn to the inhibition of the AKT/mTORC1 axis and the subsequent stimulation of autophagy-mediated apoptosis in tumor cells. Here, we took advantage of the use of cells derived from Trib3-deficient mice to investigate the precise mechanisms by which TRIB3 regulates the anti-cancer action of THC. Our data show that RasV 12/E1A-transformed embryonic fibroblasts derived from Trib3-deficient mice are resistant to THC-induced cell death. We also show that genetic inactivation of this protein abolishes the ability of THC to inhibit the phosphorylation of AKT and several of its downstream targets, including those involved in the regulation of the AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) axis. Our data support the idea that THC-induced TRIB3 up-regulation inhibits AKT phosphorylation by regulating the accessibility of AKT to its upstream activatory kinase (the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2; mTORC2). Finally, we found that tumors generated by inoculation of Trib3-deficient cells in nude mice are resistant to THC anticancer action. Altogether, the observations presented here strongly support that TRIB3 plays a crucial role on THC antineoplastic activity. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Lipid Metabolism in Cancer. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Fernandez-Acero T.,Complutense University of Madrid | Fernandez-Acero T.,Instituto Ramon Y Cajal Of Investigaciones Sanitarias Irycis | Rodriguez-Escudero I.,Complutense University of Madrid | Molina M.,Complutense University of Madrid | Cid V.J.,Complutense University of Madrid
Cellular Signalling | Year: 2015

Phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P2] is essential for recognition of the plasma membrane inner leaf by protein complexes. We expressed mammalian class I phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to eliminate PtdIns(4,5)P2 by its conversion into PtdIns(3,4,5)P3, a lipid naturally missing in this yeast. This led to loss of actin function and endocytosis defects, causing a blockage in polarized secretion. Also, the cell wall integrity (CWI) mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway was activated, triggering a typical transcriptional response. In the absence of PtdIns(4,5)P2 at the plasma membrane, the Pkc1 protein kinase upstream the CWI MAPK module localized to post-Golgi endosomes marked by SNARE Snc1 and Rab GTPases Ypt31 and Ypt32. Other components at the head of the pathway, like the mechanosensor Wsc1, the GTPase Rho1 and its activator the GDP/GTP exchange factor Rom2, co-localized with Pkc1 in these compartments. Chemical inhibition of PI3K proved that both CWI activation and Pkc1 relocation to endosomes are reversible. These results suggest that the CWI pathway is able to respond to loss of plasma membrane identity from recycling endosomes. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. Source

Puig-Asensio M.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Fernandez-Ruiz M.,Complutense University of Madrid | Aguado J.M.,Complutense University of Madrid | Merino P.,Hospital Universitario Clinico San Carlos | And 6 more authors.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy | Year: 2016

Candida glabrata isolates have reduced in vitro susceptibility to azoles, which raises concerns about the clinical effectiveness of fluconazole for treating bloodstream infection (BSI) by this Candida species. We aimed to evaluate whether the choice of initial antifungal treatment (fluconazole versus echinocandins or liposomal amphotericin B [L-AmB]-based regimens) has an impact on the outcome of C. glabrata BSI. We analyzed data from a prospective, multicenter, population-based surveillance program on candidemia conducted in 5 metropolitan areas of Spain (May 2010 to April 2011). Adult patients with an episode of C. glabrata BSI were included. The main outcomes were 14-day mortality and treatment failure (14-day mortality and/or persistent C. glabrata BSI for ≥48 h despite antifungal initiation). The impact of using fluconazole as initial antifungal treatment on the patients' prognosis was assessed by logistic regression analysis with the addition of a propensity score approach. A total of 94 patients with C. glabrata BSI were identified. Of these, 34 had received fluconazole and 35 had received an echinocandin/L-AmB-based regimen. Patients in the echinocandin/L-AmB group had poorer baseline clinical status than did those in the fluconazole group. Patients in the fluconazole group were more frequently (55.9% versus 28.6%) and much earlier (median time, 3 versus 7 days) switched to another antifungal regimen. Overall, 14-day mortality was 13% (9/69) and treatment failure 34.8% (24/69), with no significant differences between the groups. On multivariate analysis, after adjusting for baseline characteristics by propensity score, fluconazole use was not associated with an unfavorable evolution (adjusted odds ratio [OR] for 14-day mortality, 1.16, with 95% confidence interval [CI] of 0.22 to 6.17; adjusted OR for treatment failure, 0.83, with 95% CI of 0.27 to 2.61). In conclusion, initial fluconazole treatment was not associated with a poorer outcome than that obtained with echinocandins/L-AmB regimens in patients with C. glabrata BSI. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01236261.) Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Source

Perianes-Cachero A.,University of Alcala | Burgos-Ramos E.,Stem Cells and Cancer Group | Puebla-Jimenez L.,University of Alcala | Canelles S.,Hospital Infantil Universitario Nino Jesus | And 19 more authors.
Neuroscience | Year: 2013

Leptin and somatostatin (SRIF) have opposite effects on food seeking and ingestive behaviors, functions partially regulated by the frontoparietal cortex and hippocampus. Although it is known that the acute suppression of food intake mediated by leptin decreases with time, the counter-regulatory mechanisms remain unclear. Our aims were to analyze the effect of acute central leptin infusion on the SRIF receptor-effector system in these areas and the implication of related intracellular signaling mechanisms in this response. We studied 20 adult male Wister rats including controls and those treated intracerebroventricularly with a single dose of 5. μg of leptin and sacrificed 1 or 6. h later. Density of SRIF receptors was unchanged at 1. h, whereas leptin increased the density of SRIF receptors at 6. h, which was correlated with an elevated capacity of SRIF to inhibit forskolin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity in both areas. The functional capacity of SRIF receptors was unaltered as cell membrane levels of αi1 and αi2 subunits of G inhibitory proteins were unaffected in both brain areas. The increased density of SRIF receptors was due to enhanced SRIF receptor subtype 2 (sst2) protein levels that correlated with higher mRNA levels for this receptor. These changes in sst2 mRNA levels were concomitant with increased activation of the insulin signaling, c-Jun and cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB); however, activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 was reduced in the cortex and unchanged in the hippocampus and suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 remained unchanged in these areas. In addition, the leptin antagonist L39A/D40A/F41A blocked the leptin-induced changes in SRIF receptors, leptin signaling and CREB activation. In conclusion, increased activation of insulin signaling after leptin infusion is related to acute up-regulation of the SRIF receptor-effector system that may antagonize short-term leptin actions in the rat brain. © 2013 IBRO. Source

Erdozain A.M.,University of the Basque Country | Erdozain A.M.,Research Center Biomedica En Red Of Salud Mental Cibersam | Erdozain A.M.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Rubio M.,Complutense University of Madrid | And 15 more authors.
Addiction Biology | Year: 2015

There is strong biochemical, pharmacological and genetic evidence for the involvement of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in alcohol dependence. However, the majority of studies have been performed in animal models. The aim of the present study was to assess the state of the CB1 receptor, the enzymes fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), and the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and cyclic-AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) in the post-mortem prefrontal cortex of alcoholic subjects. Experiments were performed in samples from 44 subjects classified in four experimental groups: (1) non-suicidal alcoholic subjects (n=11); (2) suicidal alcoholic subjects (n=11); (3) non-alcoholic suicide victims (n=11); and (4) control subjects (n=11). We did not observe statistically significant differences in CB1 mRNA relative expression among the four experimental groups. Conversely, our results showed an increase in CB1 receptor protein expression in the prefrontal cortex of the suicidal alcoholic group (127.2±7.3%), with no changes in functionality with regard to either G protein activation or the inhibition of adenylyl cyclase. In parallel, alcoholic subjects presented lower levels of MAGL activity, regardless of the cause of death. A significant decrease in the active form of ERK and CREB levels was also observed in both alcoholic groups. Taken together, our data are consistent with a role for the ECS in the neurobiological mechanisms underlying alcoholism. Moreover, the alterations reported here should be of great interest for the therapeutic treatment of this chronic psychiatric disease. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction. Source

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