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Manaus, Brazil

Verba J.T.,National Institute of Amazonian Research | Verba J.T.,Federal University of Amazonas | Rabello Neto J.G.,Instituto Piagacu | Zuanon J.,National Institute of Amazonian Research | Farias I.,Federal University of Amazonas
Neotropical Ichthyology | Year: 2014

Monogamy is rare in fishes and is usually associated with elaborate parental care. When parental care is present in fishes, it is usually the male that is responsible, and it is believed that there is a relationship between the high energetic investment and the certainty of paternity (except in the case of sneaker males). Osteoglossum bicirrhosum is considered a monogamous fish, and has particular behavioral traits that permit the study of mating systems and parental care, such as male mouthbrooding. We investigated the genetic relationships of males with the broods found in their oral cavities in Osteoglossum samples collected in a natural environment in the lower Purus river basin, Amazonas, Brazil. Fourteen broods were analyzed for parentage (268 young and 14 adult males) using eight microsatellite loci. The results indicate that eleven broods show a monogamous system. In one brood, however, approximately 50% of the young were genetically compatible with being offspring of another male, and in another two broods, none of the subsampled young were compatible with the genotypes of the brooding male. The result of this first brood may be explained by the extra-parental contribution of a sneaker male, whereas cooperative parental care may explain the result in the other two broods. © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Ictiologia. Source

Marioni B.,Instituto Piagacu | Botero-Arias R.,Institute Desenvolvimento Sustentavel Mamiraua | Fonseca-Junior S.F.,Centro Estadual Of Unidades Of Conservacao Do Amazonas
Tropical Conservation Science | Year: 2013

Amazon floodplains have a long history of exploitation of crocodilians, particularly of large species such as the black caiman (Melanosuchus niger) and spectacled caiman (Caiman crocodilus). Historically, legal but uncontrolled trade resulted in a drastic reduction of wild populations of both species, which eventually led to the collapse of the commercial trade. In 1967, prohibition of commercial use of wild fauna through changes in Brazilian and international laws allowed caiman populations to slowly recover across much of their original range. Several studies on caiman populations greatly improved knowledge about the species, offering scientific bases for crocodilian management in the wild. Although protective legislation should only be altered using extreme caution, the creation of Sustainable Development Reserves (SDR) at the end of last century made it possible to manage wildlife for commercial purposes, albeit under strict population monitoring regimes. This category of protected area was established to improve welfare of local communities and strengthen their participation in conservation. Along with involvement in caiman monitoring programs, the engagement of local hunters and buyers is essential for participatory management plans. Even with development of SDRs, monitoring of crocodilian populations is still restricted to a few State Reserves, and traditional knowledge of stakeholders has been insufficiently incorporated into management and monitoring activities. We believe that stronger participation of local actors can help to improve the experimental harvesting initiatives that have been carried out thus far by local authorities. Community-based monitoring programs, which reflect local reality, are being developed in a simple and cost-effective way. Source

Schneider L.,University of Canberra | Peleja R.P.,Federal University of Para | Kluczkovski A.,Federal University of Para | Freire G.M.,Federal University of Amazonas | And 3 more authors.
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology | Year: 2012

Mercury (Hg) concentrations in the Amazon are generally high, but no studies have been published on Hg concentrations in caimans (Alligatoridae) from the region. Aiming for sizes representative of caimans traded for food in the Amazon, we measured Hg concentration in tail muscle of spectacled caiman (Caiman crocodilus crocodilus) and black caiman (Melanosuchus niger) from the Purus River basin. The information on Hg concentration in caimans from this area is important because of the potential health risk to humans and other animals that eat them as well as the potential use of these top-level predators as bioindicators. There were no significant interspecific or sex differences in Hg concentrations. The mean Hg concentration was 291.2 μg/kg in C. c. crocodilus and 193.9 μg/kg in M. niger. A significant positive correlation between Hg concentration and size was found for M. niger (p = 0.005) but not for C. c. crocodilus. Our Hg sample from M. niger corresponded to the size of M. niger collected for commercial trade, but our Hg sample from C. c. crocodilus turned out to be significantly smaller than the trade samples (p = 0.004), but this difference is not pertinent in the absence of a correlation between size and Hg concentration for this species. Although there are no standards for reptile meat, both species had mean Hg concentrations lower than the maximum allowable level of 500 μg/kg Hg recommended by the World Health Organization and by the Brazilian Health Ministry for fish. However, by calculating daily consumptions limits and number of meals per month that can be safely consumed, we found that consumers who eat caimans frequently may be at risk for Hg-related health problems. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012. Source

Lopes L.P.C.,State University of Maringa | Karling L.C.,State University of Maringa | Takemoto R.M.,State University of Maringa | Rossoni F.,Instituto Piagacu | And 2 more authors.
Helminthologia | Year: 2011

Summary: The present paper describes a new species of Dadayius Fukui, 1929 (Trematoda, Digenea), parasite of Symphysodon aequifasciatus Pellegrin, 1904, a freshwater fish. The fish were collected from the Purus River, Amazonas State, Brazil. This new species has a long body and, different from other species of the genus, an arch-shaped ovary and a sinuous oesophagus with an ovoid bulb. This is the first record of Dadayius in cichlid fish; to date Dadayius has only been found parasitizing characid fish. © 2011 © Versita Warsaw and Springer-Verlag Wien. Source

Barao-Nobrega J.A.L.,University of Aveiro | Marioni B.,Instituto Piagacu | Dutra-Araujo D.,Instituto Piagacu | Botero-Arias R.,Institute Desenvolvimento Sustentavel Mamiraua | And 3 more authors.
Herpetological Journal | Year: 2016

Although nesting ecology is well studied in crocodilians, there is little information on the diet and feeding habits of nesting females. During the annual dry season (November–December) of 2012, we studied the diet of female spectacled caiman (Caiman crocodilus) attending nests (n=33) and far from nests (n=16) in Piagaçu-Purus Sustainable Development Reserve (PPSDR), Central Amazonia, Brazil. The proportion of empty stomachs in nest-attending females was larger, and the occurrence of fresh food items was lower when compared to females not attending nests. Fish was the most frequent prey item for non-nesting females, while terrestrial invertebrates and snail operculae were the prey items most commonly recovered from stomachs of nesting females. Our study demonstrates that, despite enduring periods of food deprivation associated with nest attendance, nesting females of C. crocodilus still consume nearby available prey, possibly leaving their nest temporarily unattended. © 2016, British Herpetological Society. All rights reserved. Source

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