Instituto Piagacu

Manaus, Brazil

Instituto Piagacu

Manaus, Brazil
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Benchimol M.,University Estadual Of Santa Cruz | von Muhlen E.M.,Grande Rio University | von Muhlen E.M.,Instituto Piagacu | Venticinque E.M.,Grande Rio University
Environmental Management | Year: 2017

A large number of sustainable use reserves recently have been titled in the Brazilian Amazonia. These reserves require public participation in the design and implementation of management and monitoring programs. Species-monitoring programs that engage local stakeholders may be useful for assessing wildlife status over the long term. We collaborated on the development of a participatory program to monitor forest vertebrates in the Piagaçu-Purus Sustainable Development Reserve and to build capacity among the local people. We examined relations between the distance to the nearest human community and sighting rates of each species, and evaluated the program overall. Eighteen wildlife monitors received training in line transect and sign surveys and then conducted surveys along a total of ten transects. Sighting rates of most species in the Piagaçu-Purus Sustainable Development Reserve were higher than those reported in other Amazonian forests. Distance to the human community was not associated with the overall vertebrate sighting rate. Use of the trained monitors was successful in terms of data acquisition and engagement. The involvement of local people promoted discussions about regulation of hunting in the reserve. Implementation of community-based programs to monitor forest wildlife in Amazonian sustainable use reserves may empower local communities and assess the status of wildlife through time. © 2017 Springer Science+Business Media New York


Chaves W.A.,University of Florida | Chaves W.A.,Ziegler | Chaves W.A.,Instituto Piagacu | Wilkie D.S.,Wildlife Conservation Society | And 2 more authors.
Biological Conservation | Year: 2017

Wild meat is an important source of food and income for people across the tropics, but overhunting is driving species declines. Comprehension of the interrelated factors that influence wild meat consumption is needed to help address this important issue. A central hypothesis is that market access in the tropics drives consumption. We tested this hypothesis by comparing households with high (living in a town) and low (living in rural areas) market access in the central Amazon. When comparing households in rural communities only, we used travel frequency to town and boat traffic as proxies for market access. To determine interrelationships, we assessed other factors that may influence meat consumption, such as occupation, wealth, and number of people in households. As predicted, town residents consumed more domesticated meat and less wild meat than rural residents. Among rural communities, travel frequency was negatively, and boat traffic was positively, associated with wild meat consumption. Occupation was an important predictor of consumption, with farmers (occupation more common in rural areas) consuming more wild meat than people with other occupations. Number of people in the household was negatively associated with beef consumption. Wealth was associated with wild meat and beef consumption but its effect on consumption was negligible (effect size near zero). When comparing urban and rural residents, we detected a strong relationship between market access and wild meat consumption, but this was influenced by the diversity of livelihood options available to town versus rural residents. Among rural residents, we detected a relationship between market access and wild meat consumption, but this relationship depended on the nature of the market access (household travel frequency to town versus boat traffic at rural communities). Our findings suggest that greater access to market may lead to a decrease in wild meat consumption at the household level. Key factors we did not address, however, require further research in rural communities; namely whether reduced consumption leads to overall reduction in hunting or merely a shift from consumption to trade. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd


Barao-Nobrega J.A.L.,University of Aveiro | Marioni B.,Instituto Piagacu | Dutra-Araujo D.,Instituto Piagacu | Botero-Arias R.,Institute Desenvolvimento Sustentavel Mamiraua | And 3 more authors.
Herpetological Journal | Year: 2016

Although nesting ecology is well studied in crocodilians, there is little information on the diet and feeding habits of nesting females. During the annual dry season (November–December) of 2012, we studied the diet of female spectacled caiman (Caiman crocodilus) attending nests (n=33) and far from nests (n=16) in Piagaçu-Purus Sustainable Development Reserve (PPSDR), Central Amazonia, Brazil. The proportion of empty stomachs in nest-attending females was larger, and the occurrence of fresh food items was lower when compared to females not attending nests. Fish was the most frequent prey item for non-nesting females, while terrestrial invertebrates and snail operculae were the prey items most commonly recovered from stomachs of nesting females. Our study demonstrates that, despite enduring periods of food deprivation associated with nest attendance, nesting females of C. crocodilus still consume nearby available prey, possibly leaving their nest temporarily unattended. © 2016, British Herpetological Society. All rights reserved.


Verba J.T.,National Institute of Amazonian Research | Verba J.T.,Federal University of Amazonas | Rabello Neto J.G.,Instituto Piagacu | Zuanon J.,National Institute of Amazonian Research | Farias I.,Federal University of Amazonas
Neotropical Ichthyology | Year: 2014

Monogamy is rare in fishes and is usually associated with elaborate parental care. When parental care is present in fishes, it is usually the male that is responsible, and it is believed that there is a relationship between the high energetic investment and the certainty of paternity (except in the case of sneaker males). Osteoglossum bicirrhosum is considered a monogamous fish, and has particular behavioral traits that permit the study of mating systems and parental care, such as male mouthbrooding. We investigated the genetic relationships of males with the broods found in their oral cavities in Osteoglossum samples collected in a natural environment in the lower Purus river basin, Amazonas, Brazil. Fourteen broods were analyzed for parentage (268 young and 14 adult males) using eight microsatellite loci. The results indicate that eleven broods show a monogamous system. In one brood, however, approximately 50% of the young were genetically compatible with being offspring of another male, and in another two broods, none of the subsampled young were compatible with the genotypes of the brooding male. The result of this first brood may be explained by the extra-parental contribution of a sneaker male, whereas cooperative parental care may explain the result in the other two broods. © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Ictiologia.


de Oliveira D.P.,Federal University of Amazonas | Farias I.P.,Federal University of Amazonas | Marioni B.,Instituto Piagacu | Campos Z.,EMBRAPA - Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária | And 2 more authors.
Conservation Genetics Resources | Year: 2010

We used a microsatellite enriched library to isolate and characterize 12 di-nucleotide microsatellite loci of Caiman crocodilus. Microsatellites were characterized in populations of C. c. crocodilus from Piagaçu-Purus, Amazonas, Brazil and C. c. yacare from Cáceres, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Results of characterization were comparable between the two subspecies, with number of alleles varying from three to 20 and one to 14 per locus in C. c. crocodilus and C. c. yacare, respectively. Observed heterozygosities ranged from 0.088 to 0.816 and 0.115 to 0.833, respectively. Joint paternity exclusion (QC) was[0.999 in both subspecies, and probability of genetic identity varied from 4.631 9 10 -13 in C. c. crocodilus to 2.233 9 10 -8 in C. c. yacare. All loci are unlinked, and with the exception of three loci in C. c. crocodilus all loci were at Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The characteristics of these loci makes them an excellent tool set for the study of mating systems, and fine-scaled population structuring in the Caiman crocodilus species complex. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010.


Schneider L.,University of Canberra | Peleja R.P.,Federal University of Pará | Kluczkovski A.,Federal University of Pará | Freire G.M.,Federal University of Amazonas | And 3 more authors.
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology | Year: 2012

Mercury (Hg) concentrations in the Amazon are generally high, but no studies have been published on Hg concentrations in caimans (Alligatoridae) from the region. Aiming for sizes representative of caimans traded for food in the Amazon, we measured Hg concentration in tail muscle of spectacled caiman (Caiman crocodilus crocodilus) and black caiman (Melanosuchus niger) from the Purus River basin. The information on Hg concentration in caimans from this area is important because of the potential health risk to humans and other animals that eat them as well as the potential use of these top-level predators as bioindicators. There were no significant interspecific or sex differences in Hg concentrations. The mean Hg concentration was 291.2 μg/kg in C. c. crocodilus and 193.9 μg/kg in M. niger. A significant positive correlation between Hg concentration and size was found for M. niger (p = 0.005) but not for C. c. crocodilus. Our Hg sample from M. niger corresponded to the size of M. niger collected for commercial trade, but our Hg sample from C. c. crocodilus turned out to be significantly smaller than the trade samples (p = 0.004), but this difference is not pertinent in the absence of a correlation between size and Hg concentration for this species. Although there are no standards for reptile meat, both species had mean Hg concentrations lower than the maximum allowable level of 500 μg/kg Hg recommended by the World Health Organization and by the Brazilian Health Ministry for fish. However, by calculating daily consumptions limits and number of meals per month that can be safely consumed, we found that consumers who eat caimans frequently may be at risk for Hg-related health problems. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012.


PubMed | Instituto Piagacu, National Institute of Amazonian Research, Instituto Chico Mendes Of Conservacao Da Biodiversidade, Federal University of Pará and University of Campinas
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciencias | Year: 2015

The present study analyzed and compared the daily consumption of foods of animal origin in eleven communities of the Lower Amazon, Trombetas and Purus Rivers, representing three different management systems and levels of conservation in the Brazilian Amazon. All food items of animal origin were weighed by at least 10% of the families in the study communities during a week in each period of the flood cycle between 2006 and 2008. Fish was the most important food, and was consumed during six days of the week, with an average rate of 169 kg.person(-1).year(-1). Game was second in importance, with 37 kg.person(-1).year-(1). This yearly rate of fish consumption is one of the highest in the world and is almost double the minimum recommended by the World Health Organization. The dietary patterns reflect both the isolation of the communities from large urban centers and the better preservation of the local environments due to the existence of protected areas. Environmental degradation may thus have effects on the health and food security of local populations. The study emphasizes the need for the implementation of public policies and participative management initiatives.


Petersen T.A.,Instituto Piagacu | Brum S.M.,Instituto Piagacu | Rossoni F.,Instituto Piagacu | Silveira G.F.V.,Operacao Amazonia Nativa | Castello L.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
Journal of Fish Biology | Year: 2016

In the present study a unique dataset on population abundance in various community-based management (CBM) and non-CBM areas is analysed to address the question of whether CBM can recover overexploited populations of Arapaima sp. in river-floodplain ecosystems. All non-CBM areas possessed depleted Arapaima sp. populations with a mean density of 0·01 individuals ha−1. Arapaima sp. population densities in all CBM areas changed over time from depleted to overexploited or well managed status, with a mean rate of increase of 77% year−1. Rates of Arapaima sp. population recovery in CBM areas differed, probably reflecting differences in ecosystem productivity and compliance with management regulations. These results indicate that CBM schemes can be effective tools for the recovery and conservation of fish populations with non-migratory life cycles in tropical river-floodplain ecosystems. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles


Marioni B.,Instituto Piagacu | Botero-Arias R.,Institute Desenvolvimento Sustentavel Mamiraua | Fonseca-Junior S.F.,Centro Estadual Of Unidades Of Conservacao Do Amazonas
Tropical Conservation Science | Year: 2013

Amazon floodplains have a long history of exploitation of crocodilians, particularly of large species such as the black caiman (Melanosuchus niger) and spectacled caiman (Caiman crocodilus). Historically, legal but uncontrolled trade resulted in a drastic reduction of wild populations of both species, which eventually led to the collapse of the commercial trade. In 1967, prohibition of commercial use of wild fauna through changes in Brazilian and international laws allowed caiman populations to slowly recover across much of their original range. Several studies on caiman populations greatly improved knowledge about the species, offering scientific bases for crocodilian management in the wild. Although protective legislation should only be altered using extreme caution, the creation of Sustainable Development Reserves (SDR) at the end of last century made it possible to manage wildlife for commercial purposes, albeit under strict population monitoring regimes. This category of protected area was established to improve welfare of local communities and strengthen their participation in conservation. Along with involvement in caiman monitoring programs, the engagement of local hunters and buyers is essential for participatory management plans. Even with development of SDRs, monitoring of crocodilian populations is still restricted to a few State Reserves, and traditional knowledge of stakeholders has been insufficiently incorporated into management and monitoring activities. We believe that stronger participation of local actors can help to improve the experimental harvesting initiatives that have been carried out thus far by local authorities. Community-based monitoring programs, which reflect local reality, are being developed in a simple and cost-effective way.


PubMed | Instituto Piagacu, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University and Operacao Amazonia Nativa
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of fish biology | Year: 2016

In the present study a unique dataset on population abundance in various community-based management (CBM) and non-CBM areas is analysed to address the question of whether CBM can recover overexploited populations of Arapaima sp. in river-floodplain ecosystems. All non-CBM areas possessed depleted Arapaima sp. populations with a mean density of 001 individuals ha(-1) . Arapaima sp. population densities in all CBM areas changed over time from depleted to overexploited or well managed status, with a mean rate of increase of 77% year(-1) . Rates of Arapaima sp. population recovery in CBM areas differed, probably reflecting differences in ecosystem productivity and compliance with management regulations. These results indicate that CBM schemes can be effective tools for the recovery and conservation of fish populations with non-migratory life cycles in tropical river-floodplain ecosystems.

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