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Montevideo, Uruguay

Asano K.M.,University of Sao Paulo | Gregori F.,University of Sao Paulo | Souza S.P.,University of Sao Paulo | Rotava D.,University of Sao Paulo | And 4 more authors.
Avian Diseases | Year: 2011

Rotaviruses are the main agents responsible for diarrhea in different animal species and for infantile gastroenteritis. These viruses have been isolated from various avian species and have often been associated with poult enteritis and mortality syndrome. Nevertheless, the knowledge of rotavirus infection in turkeys is scarce. Six group A rotavirus strains obtained from pooled enteric contents of diarrheic turkeys were isolated in MA-104 cell culture and typed as G6P1, a typical bovine rotavirus genotype. Additionally, the electropherotypes showed a migration pattern identical to the Nebraska calf diarrhea virus, and the complete NSP4 gene phylogeny showed that all six strains segregated in the genotype E2. Taken together, these results point toward a cattle-to-turkey rotavirus transmission. As a conclusion, bovine-origin rotavirus can be found in turkeys, and this transmission route must now be considered for the improvement of the health status in turkey farms. © 2011 American Association of Avian Pathologists.

Marassa A.M.,University of Sao Paulo | Galati E.A.B.,University of Sao Paulo | Bergamaschi D.P.,University of Sao Paulo | Consales C.A.,Instituto Pasteur
Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical | Year: 2013

Introduction: The aim of this study was to identify the blood feeding sources of Nyssomyia intermedia (Ny. intermedia) and Nyssomyia neivai (Ny. neivai), which are Leishmania vectors and the predominant sandfl y species in the Ribeira Valley, State of São Paulo, Brazil, an endemic area for cutaneous leishmaniasis. Methods: Specimens were captured monthly between February 2001 and December 2003 on a smallholding and a small farm situated in the Serra district in the Iporanga municipality. The blood meals of 988 engorged females were tested using the avidin-biotin immunoenzymatic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Seven blood meal sources were investigated: human, dog, chicken, bovine, pig, horse and rat. Results: The results showed that among the females that fed on one or more blood sources, the respective percentages for Ny. intermedia and Ny. neivai, respectively, were as follows: human (23% and 36.8%), pig (47.4% and 26.4%), chicken (25.7% and 36.8%) and dog (3.9% and 0%), and the differences in the blood sources between the two species were statistically signifi cant (p = 0.043). Conclusions: Both species had predominant reactivity for one or two blood sources, and few showed reactivity indicating three or four sources. Many different combinations were observed among the females that showed reactivity for more than one source, which indicated their opportunistic habits and eclecticism regarding anthropic environmental conditions.

Kanitz F.A.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Cargnelutti J.F.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Weiblen R.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Ruthner Batista H.B.C.,Instituto Pasteur | Flores E.F.,Federal University of Santa Maria
Ciencia Rural | Year: 2015

This study investigated the suitability of virus isolation (VI) in mouse neuroblastoma cells (N2A) and baby hamster kidney cells (BHK-21) as a confirmatory test for diagnosis of bovine rabies. Fourty-eight brain samples from cattle suspected of rabies were initially submitted to fluorescent antibody test (FAT) and mouse inoculation test (MIT) for routine diagnostic. Subsequently, these specimens were submitted to three protocols of VI in each cell line: a single 24h or 72h passage (T1, T2), or three 48h passages (T3). The FAT and MIT combined detected 32/48 positive samples, from which MIT detected 32 and FAT 31. The average time required for final MIT results was 12.3 days (8 – 21). VI in BHK-21 cells provided definitive, positive results in 100% of the samples in 72h (T2) and in 96.9% after three 48h passages (T3). VI in N2A cells yielded positive results in 100% in 72h (T2) and in 93.7% of samples after three 48h passages (T3). Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were 100% in T2 in N2A and BHK-21 cells, and the Kappa value was excellent in both cells (k=1). A single 24h passage (T1) in both cell lines performed poorly, detecting less than 40% of the positive samples. Taking together, these results indicate that VI in both cell lines, especially in BHK-21 cells that grow faster and are much easier to maintain, does represent an adequate alternative for MIT as a confirmatory test for rabies diagnostic in bovine specimens, yielding reliable results in reduced time. © 2015, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria. All rights reserved.

Albas A.,Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios | de Souza E.A.N.,Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios | Picolo M.R.,Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios | Favoretto S.R.,Instituto Pasteur
Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical | Year: 2011

Introduction: The Polo da Alta Sorocabana Laboratory in Presidente Prudente, SP, in partnership with other research institutions, conducted studies related to bats from the western region of the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Thus, certain situations were investigated, including: a) isolation of the rabies virus from 2006 to 2008; b) identification of respective antigenic variants; and c) characterization of daytime shelters of Desmodus rotundus vampire bats. Methods: Samples for examination originated from nonhematophagous bats forwarded to the laboratory and subjected to direct fluorescent antibody test and mouse inoculation test. Positive samples were characterized by the monoclonal antibody test. Regarding the bats, they were identified and classified and mapping of their shelters was also performed. Results: The laboratory received 1,113 nonhematophagous bats for rabies diagnosis, 11 (1%) of which were positives, and among the positive samples, 5 (45.5%) presented antigenic variant 3 (from the bat Desmodus rotundus) and 4 (36.5%) were compatible with samples derived from Brazilian insectivorous bats. Sixteen vampire bat shelters were investigated and observation confirmed the presence of another 3 species of nonhematophagous bats coexisting with them.Conclusions: The experiments showed that at least 3 antigenic variants of rabies virus are circulating in the region and that the cohabitation of vampire bats with nonhematophag ousbats could be related to the dissemination of the rabies virus.

Almejun M.B.,Servicio de Inmunologia y Reumatologia | Cols M.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine | Zelazko M.,Servicio de Inmunologia y Reumatologia | Oleastro M.,Servicio de Inmunologia y Reumatologia | And 4 more authors.
European Journal of Immunology | Year: 2013

Mutations in the transmembrane activator and calcium-modulating cyclophilin ligand interactor (TACI) were previously found to be associated with hypogammaglobulinemia in humans. It has been shown that proliferation inducing ligand (APRIL) elicits class switch recombination (CSR) by inducing recruitment of MyD88 to a TACI highly conserved cytoplasmic domain (THC). We have identified a patient with hypogammaglobulinemia carrying a missense mutation (S231R) predicted to affect the THC. Aiming to evaluate the relevance of this novel mutation of TACI in CSR induction, we tested the ability of TACI, TLR9, or/and CD40 ligands to trigger CSR in naive B cells and B-cell lines carrying S231R. IgG secretion was impaired when triggered by TACI or/and TLR9 ligands on S231R-naive B cells. Likewise, these stimuli induced less expression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase, I(γ)1-C(μ), and I(γ)1-C(μ), while induction by optimal CD40 stimulation was indistinguishable from controls. These cells also showed an impaired cooperation between TACI and TLR9 pathways, as well as a lack of APRIL-mediated enhancement of CD40 activation in suboptimal conditions. Finally, after APRIL ligation, S231R-mutated TACI failed to colocalize with MyD88. Collectively, these results highlight the requirement of an intact MyD88-binding site in TACI to trigger CSR. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

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