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Ferreira A.O.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Sa J.C.M.,State University of Ponta Grossa | Harms M.G.,State University of Ponta Grossa | Miara S.,State University of Ponta Grossa | And 5 more authors.
Ciencia Rural | Year: 2012

The decrease in soil organic carbon (SOC) content in deeper layers indicates the occurrence of stratification between the surface layer and subsurface layer of soil due to continuous C addition by crop residues. The objective was to evaluate the change (delta) of stratification (RE) of carbon (C) as an indicator of C sequestration and soil total and particulate soil in macroaggregates of two soils (Typic Hapludox) with different textures, managed in no-tillage system. The tests were developed in completely randomized design twelve repetitions. Analyzed factors were: (a) two soils: Oxisol with medium texture and Oxisol with clay texture, (b) sampling depth: 0-5 and 5-20cm, (c) two sampling times (October 2007-T1, September 2008- T2). The results were submitted to variance analysis by program SISVAR 5.3, using the Tukey test at 5% significance. There was a significant linear relationship between the Δ RE and carbon sequestration rate total macroaggregates Oxisol with medium texture (R2=0.78**) and Oxisol with clay texture (R2=0.81**) indicating that there was C sequestration confirming to be a sensitive indicator of the rate of C sequestration in soil macroaggregates.


Victor D.M.,Instituto Paranaense Of Assistencia Tecnica E Extensao Rural | Jank L.,Embrapa Gado de Corte | Lempp B.,Federal University of Grande Dourados | Simeao R.M.,Embrapa Gado de Corte | And 2 more authors.
Revista Ceres | Year: 2015

The silvopastoral system is a viable technological alternative to extensive cattle grazing, however, for it to be successful, forage grass genotypes adapted to reduced light need to be identified. The objective of this study was to select progenies of Panicum maximum tolerant to low light conditions for use in breeding programs and to study the genetic control and performance of some traits associated with shade tolerance. Six full-sib progenies were evaluated in full sun, 50% and 70% of light reduction in pots and subjected to cuttings. Progeny genotypic values (GV) increased with light reduction in relation to plant height (H) and specific leaf area (SLA). The traits total dry mass accumulation (DM) and leaf dry mass accumulation (LDM) had GV higher in 50% shade and intermediate in 70% shade. The GV of tiller number (TIL) and root dry mass accumulation (RDM) decreased with light reduction. The highest positive correlations were obtained for the traits H and RDM with SLA and DM; the highest negative correlations were between TIL and SLA and RDM, and H and LDM. The progenies showed higher tolerance to 50% light reduction and, among them, two stood out and will be used in breeding programs. It was also found that it is not necessary to evaluate some traits under all light conditions. All traits had high broad sense heritability and high genotypic correlation between progenies in all light intensities. There is genetic difference among the progenies regarding the response to different light intensities, which will allow selection for shade tolerance.


Porfirio-da-Silva L.C.,Instituto Paranaense Of Assistencia Tecnica E Extensao Rural | de Almeida M.M.,State University of Ponta Grossa | Borsato A.V.,EMBRAPA - Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária | Raupp D.S.,State University of Ponta Grossa
Acta Scientiarum - Agronomy | Year: 2011

Considering the commercial value of the 'Fuyu' kaki, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of Promalin applied to the orchard as well as the use of different storage temperatures in the quality of postharvest fruits. The cold chamber (4°C) kept the fruit with good firmness quality for commercialization over 16 days, for both treatments, without and with Promalin applied in the orchard; whereas, at room temperature (20-26°C) the periods were 16 and 8 days, respectively. The Promalin contributed to the improvement of firmness in fruits stored in the cold chamber, but it did not have a similar effect in fruits at room temperature. The activity of the polygalacturonase enzyme was coincident with the change in fruit firmness and the pH decreased.


de Souza W.,Instituto Paranaense Of Assistencia Tecnica E Extensao Rural | Barbosa O.R.,State University of Maringá | Marques J.A.,Federal University of Recôncavo da Bahia | Gasparino E.,State University of Maringá | And 2 more authors.
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia | Year: 2010

It was aimed to verify the effect of the presence of trees and their heights in silvipastoral system on the intake behavior of Nellore heifers in the summer. Ten heifers for the following systems were used: system without shade, silvipastoral system with 8-meter and 18-meter trees. The data were collected in three days during 12 hours, subdivided in morning (7:15 a.m. to 1. p.m.) and afternoon (1:15 p.m. to 7 p.m.). It was evaluated the times and frequency of grazing, rumination, idle and the percentage of time that the animals remained in the shade; black globe-humidity index, whose average and minimum values (86 and 82) were equal for 8-meter tree system and 18-meter tree system; however they were lower when compared to the without shade system (89 and 86). There was an interaction between the systems and the periods for all the analyzed variables, except for the rumination frequency. For system without shade, the grazing time did not differ between morning (202 min) and afternoon (187 min); however the grazing frequency was lower for the afternoon (3.17). For 8-meter trees systems and 18 meter trees system, the grazing time in the afternoon, respectively, with 195.50 and 219.00 min was higher than in the morning, respectively, with 128.00 and 158.50 minutes. The rumination time was higher in the morning for all systems. The grazing frequency for 8-meter trees was 3.58, for the without shade system it was 3.05 and for 18-meter tree system it was 2.22. A higher idle time and the idle frequency was found in system without shade (97.50 min and 3.80 respectively) in the afternoon. For 8-meter tree system (98.50 min and 4.47 respectively) and 18-meter tree system (127.00 min and 4.27 respectively), they were higher in the morning. The animals remained under shade for an average of 43.49% (with trees with 8 m) and 49.81% (with trees with 18 m) of the time. It was concluded that the presence of trees modify the time and the frequency in grazing and idle; however, it does not influence the time and frequency in rumination. © 2010 Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia.


Branco A.F.,State University of Maringá | Moreli G.,Instituto Paranaense Of Assistencia Tecnica E Extensao Rural | Jobim C.C.,State University of Maringá | Cecato U.,State University of Maringá | And 2 more authors.
Acta Scientiarum - Animal Sciences | Year: 2010

The aim of this study was to evaluate protein supplementation on the performance of steers grazing on Mombaça grass and receiving chopped sugar cane tops at a level of 0.80% of live weight (dry matter (DM) basis), during the dry season. Forage availability and quality of the experimental pasture were also evaluated. Thirty-two Nellore steers, weighing 300 kg (± 25.80) of initial live weight, eight per treatment, were used. The statistical design was completely randomized and each steer group was allocated to one of four paddocks (1.125 ha paddock-1). All steers received a protein supplement at 0.40% of live weight (DM basis) and the four treatments consisted of the following four crude protein (CP) concentrations in supplements: 12.5, 25.0, 37.5 and 50.0% CP (DM basis). Average forage mass availability and green leaf blades availability were 10,069 and 2,195 kg of DM ha-1, respectively. Average CP, neutral fiber detergent (NDF) and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) in forage mass were 6.87, 62.63 and 49.80%, respectively. Average daily gain was 0.61 kg steer-1 day -1 and these results show that the strategy of feeding steers in pasture, with chopped sugar cane tops (0.80% LW) and protein supplement with 12.50% CP (0.40% LW), during the dry season, allows high gain per area (363 kg live weight ha-1).


Baliscei M.A.,Instituto Paranaense Of Assistencia Tecnica E Extensao Rural | Barbosa O.R.,State University of Maringá | de Souza W.,Instituto Paranaense Of Assistencia Tecnica E Extensao Rural | Costa M.A.T.,State University of Maringá | And 2 more authors.
Acta Scientiarum - Animal Sciences | Year: 2013

This study evaluated the microclimate in a system without shade (WS) and in a silvopastoral system (SP) with eucalyptus during summer and winter, by measuring the air temperature (Ta), black globe temperature (Tg), relative humidity (RH), wind speed (Ws), every 2 hours for 24 hours between rows, shade (SP) and no shade effect (WS). It was employed the randomized blocks design (months), in the plots (systems), subplots (hours) and sub-subplots (seasons). Except for Ta and RH, the Tg (24.73, 26.41 °C), Ws (3.16, 4.57 m s-1), Black globe-humidity index (BGHI) (71.83, 73.84), Thermal load index (TLI) (74.53, 76.11) and Radiant thermal load (RTL) (526.46, 595.80 W m-2), respectively for SP and WS, were higher in WS. Ta, RH and Ws had a quadratic effect of hour. There was an effect of season, respectively in summer and winter, on the Ta (27.55, 14.93°C), RH (72.11, 60.68%), Tg (29.80, 21.33 °C), BGHI (80.04, 65.63), TLI (81.64, 69.00) and RTL (575.65, 546.61 W m-2). Tg, RH and RTL showed an interaction of season x hour, and a quadratic effect, and the RTL had an interaction of system x season. The Tg was correlated with BGHI (0.962), TLI (0.956) and RTL (0.809). The silvopastoral system decreased the Tg and Ws, and made the environment more harmonious by decreasing the climatic differences between seasons.


Baliscei M.A.,Instituto Paranaense Of Assistencia Tecnica E Extensao Rural | de Souza W.,Instituto Paranaense Of Assistencia Tecnica E Extensao Rural | Barbosa O.R.,State University of Maringá | Cecato U.,State University of Maringá | And 2 more authors.
Acta Scientiarum - Animal Sciences | Year: 2012

It was evaluated the intake behavior of Nellore steers in system without shade (WS), and silvopastoral system (SP) maintained in star grass (Cynodon plectostachyus) in summer and winter. Twentyfour Nellore steers were used (12 in each system), mean age 18 months and weight of 294.5 kg. The design was completely randomized with two seasons, two treatments, 24 hours and 12 repetitions. The observations were conducted in three days, for 24 hours, with an interval of 15 minutes, with effect of the hour on the grazing behavior (GRAZ) with a maximum of 52.1% and lying ruminating (LYRUM) with a minimum of 12.3%, both at 14h. The lying idle (LYIDL) was influenced by hour with a minimum of 11,6%at 14h, and by season, with 23.9% in summer, and 13.9%, in winter. However, the standing ruminating (STRUM), without effect of hour, was affected by the interaction of season x system in summer (9.43%) and (6.19%), and winter (4.36%) and (8.27%), respectively, for SP and WS. Standing idle (OCEMP) was influenced by hour, with maximum 15.8% at 14h, and an interaction of system x season, in summer (20.10%) and (8.82%); and winter (9.05%) and (8.44%), respectively, for SP and WS. The SP system has changed the environment that affected the animal intake behavior.


de Souza W.,Instituto Paranaense Of Assistencia Tecnica E Extensao Rural | Barbosa O.R.,State University of Maringá | Marques J.A.,Federal University of Recôncavo da Bahia | Costa M.A.T.,State University of Maringá | And 2 more authors.
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia | Year: 2010

The aim of this work was to verify if the presence of trees and its height in formed silvipastoral systems with eucalyptus planted in rank can modify the microclimate and improve the environment for bovine raising during the day in summer. It was evaluated the microclimate of the environment in formed silvipastoral systems in rank of eucalyptus with 8 m, 18 m and 28 meters of height, compared to a system no shade in the summer. The experimental design was a split plot with six hour time in sub parcels. The systems are made up of parcels and the months as block in four replications and the interaction hour × system. The air temperature, black globe temperature, relative humidity and wind speed were observed to create the following indexes for thermal comfort: temperature-humidity index; black globe-humidity index; heat load index and the radiant thermal load. Excepted for the relative humidity, there was interaction for time × system for all variables and indexes. Interaction occurred for: air temperature at 10 a.m. and 6 p.m.; wind speed from 8 a.m. to 4 p.m.; temperature humidity index at 10 a.m. and 12 p.m.; black globe temperature, black globe humidity index, heat load index, and radiant thermal load at all the hours. During the summer, the system with shade of 28 m trees had the lowest average of black globe temperature; wind speed; black globe humidity index; radiant thermal load index; and heat load index. There was a reduction of wind speed average in systems 8 m, 18 m and 28 m trees in, respectively, 20.7; 50.0 and 48.0% in relation to no shade system; however it was not proportional to the height, with influence of the rank porosity and pantries height. Nevertheless, for radiant thermal load index the reduction was proportional to the height of the trees with 10.24; 12.49 and 20.76%, respectively, for 8 m, 18 m and 28 meters of height. There was a reduction of the thermal stress in the environment due to the presence of trees, being the heat load index thermal the index that better demonstrated the effect, despite of not being proportional to the rank height. © 2010 Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia.


Toledo M.V.,Instituto Paranaense Of Assistencia Tecnica E Extensao Rural | Stangarlin J.R.,West Parana State University | Bonato C.M.,State University of Maringá
Summa Phytopathologica | Year: 2015

Homeopathy can be an alternative to control plant diseases by means of the activation of resistance genes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the action of the homeopathic drugs Propolis, Sulphur and Ferrum sulphuricum at the dynamizations 6, 12, 30 and 60CH (centesimal hahnemanian dilutions) on the control of Alternaria solani and on growth variables. Hydroalcoholic solution at 10% and distilled water were the control treatments. At 19 days after transplanting, the 6th leaf of each plant was treated and, at 72 hours after the treatment, the 6th and the 7th leaves were inoculated with A. solani. The disease severity was assessed and the area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC) was calculated. The volume and the dry mass of roots were evaluated, as well as the fresh and the dry mass of shoots. Sulphur at 12 and 30CH, Ferrum sulphuricum at 6, 12 and 30CH and Propolis at all dilutions reduced the AUDPC by 17% to 49%. Sulphur at 60CH and hydroalcoholic solution at 10% had a systemic effect on resistance induction. Propolis at 30 and 60CH increased the volume of roots by 39% and 33%, respectively, the fresh mass of shoots by 35% (30CH) and the dry mass of roots by 38% (30CH). Sulphur at all dilutions increased the mass of shoots by 23% to 37%, while at 60CH it increased by 59% the mass of roots, which also occurred for Ferrum sulphuricum at 60CH (65% increment). These results indicate that homeopathic drugs can control early blight and increase the growth of tomato plants. © 2015, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP). All rights reserved.


Faganello L.R.,Instituto Paranaense Of Assistencia Tecnica E Extensao Rural | Dranski J.A.L.,West Parana State University | Malavasi U.C.,West Parana State University | Malavasi M.M.,West Parana State University
Ciencia Florestal | Year: 2015

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different concentrations of the indolbutiric acid and α-naphthalene acetic acid on the rooting of semi-woody cuttings, collected from the sprout of Cordia trichotoma seedlings. Seedlings were produced by seeds constituting a miniclonal garden with subsequent pruning of the aerial part. Sprouts were harvested resulting in semi-woody cuttings with 12.0 cm long and 5.5 mm in diameter and a pair of leaves in the apical portion reduced in a half. The treatments consisted of fast immersion of the cuttings base in indolbutiric acid (IBA) and α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) in concentrations of 0, 2.000, 4.000, 6.000, 8.000 mg L-1 in a randomized block design with bifactorial arrangement 2 x 5. After 60 days of cutting, rooting percentage, roots number and length, sprouting percentage, the number of shoots and new leaves were evaluated as well as the survival and mortality. The phytoregulator IBA at a concentration of 8.000 mg L-1 promoted greater rooting, resulting in 28.9% of the cutting rootings, and greater number of roots per cutting. For the NAA, there was no significant effect on rooting. The increasing concentration of phytoregulators linearly reduced the emission of new leaves and shoots, and increased linearly cutting mortality, negatively affecting the components of the shoot of semi-woody cuttings of Cordia trichotoma. © 2015, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria. All rights reserved.

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