de Carvalho W.D.,Centro Brasileiro para Conservacao dos Felinos Neotropicais |
de Carvalho W.D.,Institute Biologia |
de Carvalho W.D.,University of Lisbon |
Rosalino L.M.,University of Lisbon |
And 4 more authors.
Tropical Conservation Science | Year: 2015
Carnivores, particularly felids, face threats in many regions of the world. They are a crucial component of biodiversity with a functional role in the top of the food chain. Therefore, they have been the target of surveys and monitoring and ecological studies, most of which are based on footprint identifications, an efficient and low-cost method compared to other approaches. In these cases, species identifications may suffer from a high degree of bias due to the overlap in the size and shape of footprints among species. We experimented with small to medium captive wild felids of five species: ocelot, Leopardus pardalis, margay L. wiedii, oncilla, L. guttulus, domestic cat, Felis catus, and jaguarondi, Puma yagouaroundi).We tested for differences in footprint measurements, including main pad and toe pad sizes. We used humid sand as substrate and took measurements from several front and hind footprints of seven animals per species (except jaguarondi, for which only four animals were available). Our results showed that ocelot is the only species for which it is possible to obtain 100%-accurate footprint identifications, mainly because of its footprint area (i.e., length x width). The remaining species presented a wide variation in measurements, making them almost impossible to distinguish based solely on footprint dimensions. Our results suggest that researchers should restrict identification to the genus level or adopt a multidisciplinary sampling strategy by combining footprint detection with camera-trapping, visual observation, scat collection, molecular ecology techniques, and/or face-to-face interviews with local residents. © William Douglas de Carvalho, Luís Miguel Rosalino, Júlio Cesar Dalponte, Bárbara Santos, Cristina Harumi Adania and Carlos Eduardo Lustosa Esbérard.
PubMed | University of America, IPE Institute Pesquisas Ecologicas and Instituto para a Conservacao dos Carnivoros Neotropicais Pro Carnivoros
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2016
Jaguar (Panthera onca) populations in the Upper Paran River, in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest region, live in a landscape that includes highly fragmented areas as well as relatively intact ones. We developed a model of jaguar habitat suitability in this region, and based on this habitat model, we developed a spatially structured metapopulation model of the jaguar populations in this area to analyze their viability, the potential impact of road mortality on the populations persistence, and the interaction between road mortality and habitat fragmentation. In more highly fragmented populations, density of jaguars per unit area is lower and density of roads per jaguar is higher. The populations with the most fragmented habitat were predicted to have much lower persistence in the next 100 years when the model included no dispersal, indicating that the persistence of these populations are dependent to a large extent on dispersal from other populations. This, in turn, indicates that the interaction between road mortality and habitat fragmentation may lead to source-sink dynamics, whereby populations with highly fragmented habitat are maintained only by dispersal from populations with less fragmented habitat. This study demonstrates the utility of linking habitat and demographic models in assessing impacts on species living in fragmented landscapes.
Dalponte J.C.,Instituto para a Conservacao dos Carnivoros Neotropicais PRO CARNIVOROS |
Silva F.E.,Institute Desenvolvimento Sustentavel Mamiraua |
De Sousa E Silva Junior J.,Coordenacao de Zoologia
Papeis Avulsos de Zoologia | Year: 2014
The genus Callicebus is one of the most diverse Neotropical primate groups, with 31 recognized species. However, large knowledge gaps still exist regarding the diversity of this genus. Such gaps are gradually being filled due to recent intensification of sampling efforts. Several geographic distributions have been better delimited, and six new species have been described in the last 15 years. The goal of the present study is to describe a new species of Callicebus belonging to the Callicebus moloch species group, recently discovered in an area previously considered to be part of the geographic distribution of C. cinerascens. Data collection was conducted through direct observations, specimen collection and interviews with local residents during four expeditions. Specimens were deposited in the mammalian collection of the Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi. For a comparative evaluation, we examined specimens of the other species of the Callicebus moloch species group, especially the geographically neighboring forms, C. bernhardi and C. cinerascens. We examined 10 chromatic characters of the fur. In addition to body mass, we verified the conventional external variables and 26 craniometric variables. The new species differs from all other Amazonian Callicebus by an exclusive combination of characters, being easily distinguished by the light gray line of the forehead, dark ocher sideburns and throat, dark gray portions of the torso and flanks, and uniformly orange tail. The geographic distribution of the new species is limited by the Roosevelt and Aripuanã rivers, in the states of Mato Grosso and Amazonas, Brazil. Approximately 25% (1,246.382 ha) of this area falls within conservation areas, with five areas of sustainable use (746,818 ha) and three of integral protection (499,564 ha). Furthermore, a considerable portion of the distribution area is located within indigenous lands (1,555.116 ha – 32%). Therefore, 57% (2,801.498 ha) of the occurrence area of the new species falls within protected areas. © 2014, Universidade de Sao Paulo. All rights reserved.
De Souza Lima E.,UNEMAT |
De Souza Lima E.,Instituto Chico Mendes Of Conservacaoda Biodiversidade Cenap Icmbio |
De Souza Lima E.,Instituto Para A Conservacao Dos Carnivoros Neotropicais Pro Carnivoros |
Dematteo K.E.,University of Missouri-St. Louis |
And 9 more authors.
Wildlife Research | Year: 2012
Context The bush dog (Speothos venaticus) is difficult to observe, capture, and study. To date, indirect evidence and opportunistic field observations have been the primary sources of information about the species' ecology. Field data are urgently needed to clarify the species' ecological requirements, behaviour and movement patterns. Aims The present study uses 13 months of telemetry data from a group of bush dogs to begin to address questions about area requirements, habitat preferences and movement patterns of this difficult-to-study species. Methods We tracked a group of bush dogs (two adults, one juvenile, four young) in an area of intact and altered Cerrado (woodlandsavanna biome) in eastern Mato Grosso, Brazil (Nova Xavantina District). Key results The group had a total home range of 140km2 (fixed kernel 95%), with smaller seasonal 'subareas' (areas used for 12 months before moving to another area, with repetition of some areas over time) and demonstrated a preference for native habitats. Conclusions The bush dog's home range is greater than that of other canids of the same size, even correcting for group size. Patterns of seasonal movement are also different from what has been observed in other South American canids. Implications From our observations in the Brazilian savanna, bush dogs need large tracks of native habitat for their long-term persistence. Although the present study is based on a single pack, it is highly relevant for bush dog conservation because it provides novel information on the species' spatial requirements and habitat preferences. © 2012 CSIRO.