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Decastro I.J.,Federal University of Amapá | Decastro I.J.,São Paulo Institute for Technological Research | Michalski F.,Federal University of Amapá | Michalski F.,Instituto para a Conservacao dos Carnivoros Neotropicais
Biota Neotropica | Year: 2015

The varzea forests of the estuary of the Amazon River cover 25,000 km2 within the states of Pará and Amapá. The mammals of those forests, especially bats, are still poorly known. Hence, the present study aimed at inventorying the bat species from three localities of a varzea forest in the estuary of the Amazon River. Between November and December 2013, we selected 18 sampling sites in the mouths of three tributaries of the Amazon River: the rivers Ajuruxí, Maraca´, and Mazagão. We set up ten mist nets (12 x 3 m) along a 150-m linear transect in each sampling site, in a total sampling effort of 38,888 m2.h. We captured 403 individual bats of 40 species and five families. We recorded the families: Phyllostomidae (n = 31 species), Emballonuridae (n = 6 species), Moormopidae (n = 1 species), Vespertilionidae (n = 1 species), and Thyropteridae (n = 1 species). Carollia perspicillata, Artibeus planirostris, and Carollia brevicauda comprised 45% of the records. We also made the first record of Glyphonycteris daviesi for Amapá state, and captured rare species, such as Dicludurus albus and Macrophyllum macrophylum. Our results show that the varzea forest of the estuary of the Amazon River harbors high bat diversity, and, hence, conservation policies should be considered for the region. Those policies should encourage the responsible management of açaí palm (Euterpe oleracea) and timber. They should also fight illegal timber exploitation that threatens the fauna and flora of those biodiverse forests. © 2015 Universidade Estadual de Campinas UNICAMP. All rights reserved.

Morato R.G.,Instituto Chico Mendes Of Conservacao Da Biodiversidade | Morato R.G.,Instituto para a Conservacao Dos Carnivoros Neotropicais | Ferraz K.M.P.M.D.B.,Instituto para a Conservacao Dos Carnivoros Neotropicais | Ferraz K.M.P.M.D.B.,University of Sao Paulo | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

The jaguar, Panthera onca, is a top predator with the extant population found within the Brazilian Caatinga biome now known to be on the brink of extinction. Designing new conservation units and potential corridors are therefore crucial for the long-term survival of the species within the Caatinga biome. Thus, our aims were: 1) to recognize suitable areas for jaguar occurrence, 2) to delineate areas for jaguar conservation (PJCUs), 3) to design corridors among priority areas, and 4) to prioritize PJCUs. A total of 62 points records of jaguar occurrence and 10 potential predictors were analyzed in a GIS environment. A predictive distributional map was obtained using Species Distribution Modeling (SDM) as performed by the Maximum Entropy (Maxent) algorithm. Areas equal to or higher than the median suitability value of 0.595 were selected as of high suitability for jaguar occurrence and named as Priority Jaguar Conservation Units (PJCU). Ten PJCUs with sizes varying from 23.6 km2 to 4,311.0 km2 were identified. Afterwards, we combined the response curve, as generated by SDM, and expert opinions to create a permeability matrix and to identify least cost corridors and buffer zones between each PJCU pair. Connectivity corridors and buffer zone for jaguar movement included an area of 8.884,26 km2 and the total corridor length is about 160.94 km. Prioritizing criteria indicated the PJCU representing c.a. 68.61% of the total PJCU area (PJCU # 1) as of high priority for conservation and connectivity with others PJCUs (PJCUs # 4, 5 and 7) desirable for the long term survival of the species. In conclusion, by using the jaguar as a focal species and combining SDM and expert opinion we were able to create a valid framework for practical conservation actions at the Caatinga biome. The same approach could be used for the conservation of other carnivores. © 2014 Morato et al.

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