Instituto Cantonale Of Microbiologia

Bellinzona, Switzerland

Instituto Cantonale Of Microbiologia

Bellinzona, Switzerland
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Schubert C.J.,Eawag - Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology | Vazquez F.,Eawag - Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology | Losekann-Behrens T.,Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology | Knittel K.,Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology | And 2 more authors.
FEMS Microbiology Ecology | Year: 2011

Anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) has been investigated in sediments of a high alpine sulfate-rich lake. Hot spots of AOM could be identified based on geochemical and isotopic evidence. Very high fractionation of methane (α=1.031) during oxidation was observed in the uppermost sediment layers, where methane is oxidized most likely with sulfate-containing bottom waters. However, we could not exclude that other electron acceptors such as iron, or manganese might also be involved. Light carbon isotope values (δ13C=-10‰ vs. Vienna Pee Dee Belemnite [VPDB]) of sedimentary carbonates at 16-20cm sediment depth are indicative of a zone where methane was oxidized and the resulting bicarbonate ions were used for carbonate precipitation. 16S rRNA gene analysis revealed the presence of sequences belonging to the marine benthic groups B, C, and D and to the recently described clade of AOM-associated archaea (AAA). Catalyzed reporter deposition-FISH analysis revealed a high abundance of Deltaproteobacteria, especially of free-living sulfate-reducing bacteria of the Desulfosarcina/Desulfococcus branch of Deltaproteobacteria in the AOM zone. Here, loose aggregations of AAA cells were found, suggesting that AAA might be responsible for oxidation of methane in Lake Cadagno sediments. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

Sieber R.,Zentrale Notfallaufnahme | Martinetti G.,Instituto Cantonale Of Microbiologia | Meylan P.,Institute Of Microbiologie Imul Du Center Hospitalier Vaudois Chuv
International Journal of Infectious Diseases | Year: 2013

Background: Recent data suggest that varicella zoster virus (VZV)-associated complications of the central nervous system (CNS) are more common and diverse than previously thought. The main purpose of this article is to describe the clinical characteristics and the outcome of patients suffering from meningitis and encephalitis caused by VZV reactivation. Methods: A retrospective case study of adult patients (≥16 years old) diagnosed with a VZV reactivation in the CNS was performed. The cases were identified by a qualitative PCR DNA assay of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) at the Regional Hospital of Lugano between January 1, 2003 and July 31, 2010. Results: Eleven out of 519 CSF samples (2.1%), submitted from patients with a clinical diagnosis of viral meningitis or encephalitis, were positive for VZV. A vesiculo-pustular skin eruption was observed in only five patients (45%). In six cases (55%), a systemic inflammatory syndrome was absent. The clinical outcome was favorable in eight patients (73%). Only one out of 11 patients (9%) died. The four patients with encephalitis had a less favorable prognosis: one patient recovered without residual neurological sequelae; two had a chronic neuropsychological handicap, speech difficulties, facial nerve palsy, and focal seizures; one patient died. We estimated an annual incidence rate of VZV infection of the CNS of 1.02/100 000 inhabitants for southern Switzerland. Conclusions: Screening of CSF for VZV by PCR is recommended for all patients with encephalitis and for those with viral meningitis of unclear origin in order to better target antiviral treatment. © 2013 International Society for Infectious Diseases.

Niepel M.,Harvard University | Molloy K.R.,Laboratory of Mass Spectrometry and Gaseous Ion Chemistry | Williams R.,Rockefeller University | Farrc J.C.,Rockefeller University | And 9 more authors.
Molecular Biology of the Cell | Year: 2013

The basket of the nuclear pore complex (NPC) is generally depicted as a discrete structure of eight protein filaments that protrude into the nucleoplasm and converge in a ring distal to the NPC. We show that the yeast proteins Mlp1p and Mlp2p are necessary components of the nuclear basket and that they also embed the NPC within a dynamic protein network, whose extended interactome includes the spindle organizer, silencing factors, the proteasome, and key components of messenger ribonucleoproteins (mRNPs). Ultrastructural observations indicate that the basket reduces chromatin crowding around the central transporter of the NPC and might function as a docking site for mRNP during nuclear export. In addition, we show that the Mlps contribute to NPC positioning, nuclear stability, and nuclear envelope morphology. Our results suggest that the Mlps are multifunctional proteins linking the nuclear transport channel to multiple macromolecular complexes involved in the regulation of gene expression and chromatin maintenance.© 2013 Shen and Osmani. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s).

Christe P.,Biophore | Glaizot O.,Museum of Zoology | Strepparava N.,Biophore | Strepparava N.,Instituto Cantonale Of Microbiologia | And 4 more authors.
Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2012

Parental effort is usually associated with high metabolism that could lead to an increase in the production of reactive oxidative species giving rise to oxidative stress. Since many antioxidants involved in the resistance to oxidative stress can also enhance immune function, an increase in parental effort may diminish the level of antioxidants otherwise involved in parasite resistance. In the present study, we performed brood size manipulation in a population of great tits (Parus major) to create different levels of parental effort. We measured resistance to oxidative stress and used a newly developed quantitative PCR assay to quantify malarial parasitaemia. We found that males with an enlarged brood had significantly higher level of malarial parasites and lower red blood cell resistance to free radicals than males rearing control and reduced broods. Brood size manipulation did not affect female parasitaemia, although females with an enlarged brood had lower red blood cell resistance than females with control and reduced broods. However, for both sexes, there was no relationship between the level of parasitaemia and resistance to oxidative stress, suggesting a twofold cost of reproduction. Our results thus suggest the presence of two proximate and independent mechanisms for the well-documented trade-off between current reproductive effort and parental survival. © 2011 The Royal Society.

Wicht B.,Research Station Agroscope Changins Wadenswil ACW | Wicht B.,ETH Zurich | Petrini O.,Instituto Cantonale Of Microbiologia | Jermini M.,Research Station Agroscope Changins Wadenswil ACW | And 2 more authors.
Mycologia | Year: 2012

Guignardia bidwellii is the etiological agent of grape black rot, a disease affecting Vitis and other Vitaceae that can cause heavy crop losses in vineyards. Its identification is based mainly on morphological characters and the symptoms on plants but, due to their variability, they may be difficult to interpret to reliably distinguish the pathogen to species. To date, despite the economic importance of G. bidwellii, no molecular investigations have been carried out on Vitis isolates and few sequence data are available for cultures derived from ornamental host plants. We analyzed samples of G. bidwellii collected from grapevine cultivars and ornamental plants of various geographic origins by morphological, molecular and proteomic techniques, including ITS1-ITS2 regions and calmodulin gene sequencing, as well as matrixassisted laser desorption/ionization analysis by timeof-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). This polyphasic approach allowed assessing the phylogenetic relationships among the different isolates and suggested the existence of two distinct species. The advantages of a polyphasic approach for the identification of G. bidwellii are highlighted. © 2012 by The Mycological Society of America.

Wicht B.,Instituto Cantonale Of Microbiologia | Wicht B.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | Yanagida T.,Asahikawa Medical College | Scholz T.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2010

The specific identification of broad tapeworms (genus Diphyllobothrium) infecting humans is very difficult to perform by morphological observation. Molecular analysis by PCR and sequencing represents the only reliable tool to date to identify these parasites to the species level. Due to the recent spread of human diphyllobothriosis in several countries, a correct diagnosis has become crucial to better understand the distribution and the life cycle of human-infecting species as well as to prevent the introduction of parasites to disease-free water systems. Nevertheless, PCR and sequencing, although highly precise, are too complicated, long, and expensive to be employed in medical laboratories for routine diagnostics. In the present study we optimized a cheap and rapid molecular test for the differential identification of the most common Diphyllobothrium species infecting humans (D. latum, D. dendriticum, D. nihonkaiense, and D. pacificum), based on a multiplex PCR with the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene of mitochondrial DNA. Copyright © 2010, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Wicht B.,Instituto Cantonale Of Microbiologia | Wicht B.,University of Geneva | Ruggeri-Bernardi N.,Instituto Cantonale Of Microbiologia | Yanagida T.,Asahikawa Medical College | And 3 more authors.
Parasitology International | Year: 2010

Human diphyllobothriosis is caused by at least 14 species of cestodes belonging to the genus Diphyllobothrium. Molecular analysis by sequencing of nuclear and mitochondrial targets identifies some species at inter- and intra-specific level, and helps to reconstruct their phylogenetic relationships. Nevertheless, the suitability of further molecular targets deserves to be widened, and the comparison of samples of different geographical origin could allow their intra-specific characterization, which could also be useful for epidemiological purposes. In this study, we investigated inter- and intra-specific variability among tapeworms of the genus Diphyllobothrium, with focus on Diphyllobothrium latum, originated from Switzerland. Samples were analyzed by comparing the sequences of two nuclear and two mitochondrial DNA targets. We analyzed 27 samples belonging to 4 species (D. latum, Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense, Diphyllobothrium dendriticum and Diphyllobothrium ditremum), 15 of which isolated from clinical cases (adults and eggs), 2 from wild canines, and 2 from fish of Swiss lakes (plerocercoid larvae); 8 samples of homologous species from other geographic origins were also sequenced and compared with the Swiss ones. Sequences of partial small subunit ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) gene and partial internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 (ITS1-2) were not useful even in inter-specific identification, whereas sequences of complete cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and cytochrome b (cob) genes allowed us to assess inter- and intra-specific variations among the samples. Cox1 and cob could differentiate 3 and 5 haplotypes within the species D. latum. The results are discussed in the light of the anamneses provided by part of the patients. © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

de Marval F.,Dianalabs | Gottstein B.,University of Bern | Wicht B.,Instituto Cantonale Of Microbiologia
Eurosurveillance | Year: 2013

Following a first clinical case of infection by Diphyllobothrium dendriticum in Switzerland in 2006, we report a second case in the country. The species was identified by molecular methods. In the Swiss, French and Italian subalpine regions, human diphyllobothriasis has seen a comeback since the late 1980's, and Diphyllobothrium latum is usually considered the causative agent of the disease. In addition, several locally acquired and imported clinical infections due to allochthonous Diphyllobothrium species have been documented in the last years. Due to the colonisation potential of these parasites and their probably underestimated presence in the human population, there is a need for discriminating them at the medical laboratory level. Because the morphological characters are very similar among the different taxa, a correct identification requires the use of molecular methods. Molecular identification would improve diagnosis and help monitor the distribution of Diphyllobothrium species in Europe.

Rezzonico F.,Agroscope Changins Wadenswil ACW | Vogel G.,Mabritec AG | Duffy B.,Agroscope Changins Wadenswil ACW | Tonolla M.,Instituto Cantonale Of Microbiologia
Applied and Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2010

Pantoea agglomerons is an ecologically diverse taxon that includes commercially important plant-beneficial strains and opportunistic clinical isolates. Standard biochemical identification methods in diagnostic laboratories were repeatedly shown to run into false-positive identifications of P. agglomerons, a fact which is also reflected by the high number of 16S rRNA gene sequences in public databases that are incorrectly assigned to this species. More reliable methods for rapid identification are required to ascertain the prevalence of this species in clinical samples and to evaluate the biosafety of beneficial isolates. Whole-cell matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) methods and reference spectra (SuperSpectrum) were developed for accurate identification of P. agglomerons and related bacteria and used to detect differences in the protein profile within variants of the same strain, including a ribosomal point mutation conferring streptomycin resistance. MALDI-TOF MS-based clustering was shown to generally agree with classification based on gyrB sequencing, allowing rapid and reliable identification at the species level. Copyright © 2010, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

PubMed | Instituto Cantonale Of Microbiologia
Type: Case Reports | Journal: Schweizer Archiv fur Tierheilkunde | Year: 2011

We report the antibiotic treatments administered to a female dog with mastitis and successive pyoderma. Microbiological investigations allowed the identification of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius after 54 days of various antibiotic treatments. The isolate carried the mecA gene and was resistant to 9 of 15 tested antibiotics. Consistent antibiotic treatment of the infection was possible only after accurate microbiological diagnosis.

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