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Gomez-Marcos M.A.,Instituto of Investigacion Biomedica of Salamanca IBSAL | Gomez-Marcos M.A.,University of Salamanca | Martinez-Salgado C.,University of Salamanca | Gonzalez-Sarmiento R.,University of Salamanca | And 7 more authors.
BMJ Open | Year: 2016

Introduction The process of population ageing that is occurring in developed societies represents a major challenge for the health system. The aim of this study is to analyse factors that have an influence on early vascular ageing (EVA), estimated by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV) and Cardio Ankle Vascular Index (CAVI), and to determine differences by gender in a Spanish population. Methods and analysis An observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study. Study population From the population assigned to the participating healthcare centres, a cluster random sampling stratified by age and gender will be performed to obtain 500 participants aged between 35 and 75. Those who meet the inclusion criteria and give written informed consent will be included in the study. Measurements Main dependent variables: cf-PWV determined using the SphygmoCor System and CAVI estimated using VASERA. Secondary dependent variables: telomere length, carotid intima-media thickness, central and peripheral augmentation index, ankle-brachial pulse wave velocity, ankle-brachial index, retinal arteriovenous index, and renal and cardiac organ damage. Independent variables: lifestyles (physical activity, adherence to the Mediterranean diet, alcohol and tobacco consumption); psychological factors (depression, anxiety and chronic stress); inflammatory factors and oxidative stress. Ethics and dissemination The study has been approved by the clinical research ethics committee of the healthcare area of Salamanca. All study participants will sign an informed consent form agreeing to participate in the study in compliance with the Declaration of Helsinki and the WHO standards for observational studies. The results of this study will allow the understanding of the relationship of the different influencing factors and their relative weight in the development of EVA. At least 5 publications in first-quartile scientific journals are planned. © Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited.

Sancho-Martinez S.M.,Instituto Of Investigacion Biomedica Of Salamanca Ibsal | Sancho-Martinez S.M.,University of Salamanca | Sancho-Martinez S.M.,Instituto Reina Sofia Of Investigacion Nefrologica | Sancho-Martinez S.M.,Institute Salud Carlos III | And 13 more authors.
Proteomics - Clinical Applications | Year: 2015

Urinary differential proteomics is used to study renal pathophysiological mechanisms, find novel markers of biological processes and renal diseases, and stratify patients according to proteomic profiles. The proteomic procedure determines the pathophysiological meaning and clinical relevance of results. Urine samples for differential proteomic studies are usually normalized by protein content, regardless of its pathophysiological characteristics. In the field of nephrology, this approach translates into the comparison of a different fraction of the total daily urine output between proteinuric and nonproteinuric samples. Accordingly, alterations in the level of specific proteins found by this method reflect the relative presence of individual proteins in the urine; but they do not necessarily show alterations in their daily excretion, which is a key parameter for the understanding of the pathophysiological meaning of urinary components. For renal pathophysiology studies and clinical biomarker identification or determination, an alternative proteomic concept providing complementary information is based on sample normalization by daily urine output, which directly informs on changes in the daily excretion of individual proteins. This is clinically important because daily excretion (rather than absolute or relative concentration) is the only self-normalized way to evaluate the real meaning of urinary parameters, which is also independent of urine concentration. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

PubMed | Instituto Of Investigacion Biomedica Of Salamanca Ibsal, Leiden University, Hospital Universitario Of Salamanca and University of Salamanca
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Disease models & mechanisms | Year: 2015

The activin receptor-like kinase 1 (ALK-1) is a type I cell-surface receptor for the transforming growth factor- (TGF-) family of proteins. Hypertension is related to TGF-1, because increased TGF-1 expression is correlated with an elevation in arterial pressure (AP) and TGF- expression is upregulated by the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of ALK-1 in regulation of AP using Alk1 haploinsufficient mice (Alk1(+/-)). We observed that systolic and diastolic AP were significantly higher in Alk1(+/-) than in Alk1(+/+) mice, and all functional and structural cardiac parameters (echocardiography and electrocardiography) were similar in both groups. Alk1(+/-) mice showed alterations in the circadian rhythm of AP, with higher AP than Alk1(+/+) mice during most of the light period. Higher AP in Alk1(+/-) mice is not a result of a reduction in the NO-dependent vasodilator response or of overactivation of the peripheral renin-angiotensin system. However, intracerebroventricular administration of losartan had a hypotensive effect in Alk1(+/-) and not in Alk1(+/+) mice. Alk1(+/-) mice showed a greater hypotensive response to the -adrenergic antagonist atenolol and higher concentrations of epinephrine and norepinephrine in plasma than Alk1(+/+) mice. The number of brain cholinergic neurons in the anterior basal forebrain was reduced in Alk1(+/-) mice. Thus, we concluded that the ALK-1 receptor is involved in the control of AP, and the high AP of Alk1(+/-) mice is explained mainly by the sympathetic overactivation shown by these animals, which is probably related to the decreased number of cholinergic neurons.

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