Instituto Of Genomica Applicata

Lauzacco, Italy

Instituto Of Genomica Applicata

Lauzacco, Italy
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Harfouche A.,University of Tuscia | Meilan R.,Purdue University | Kirst M.,University of Florida | Morgante M.,University of Udine | And 6 more authors.
Trends in Plant Science | Year: 2012

In light of impending water and arable land shortages, population growth and climate change, it is more important than ever to examine how forest tree domestication can be accelerated to sustainably meet future demands for wood, biomass, paper, fuel and biomaterials. Because of long breeding cycles, tree domestication cannot be rapidly achieved through traditional genetic improvement methods alone. Integrating modern genetic and genomic techniques with conventional breeding will expedite tree domestication. Breeders will only embrace these technologies if they are cost-effective and readily accessible, and forest landowners will only adopt end-products that meet with regulatory approval and public acceptance. All parties involved must work together to achieve these objectives for the benefit of society. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Falginella L.,University of Udine | Di Gaspero G.,University of Udine | Di Gaspero G.,Instituto Of Genomica Applicata | Castellarin S.D.,University of Udine
Planta | Year: 2012

The mature berry of Vitis vinifera 'Alicante Bouschet' is entirely red, but anthocyanin metabolism discloses elements of histological discontinuity. This provides an experimental system amenable to studies of compartmentalised secondary metabolism in a fleshly fruit. We compared microscopy of fixed berry sections and chemical composition of anthocyanin extracts with the expression of 41 flavonoid genes in three berry tissues. In the pericarp, anthocyanins formed membrane-encased spherical coalescences that gradually enlarged and were shuttled into the vacuolar system. The size and the intensity of in situ pigmentation and of colour extracts of anthocyanin vesicles all decreased with depth beneath the epidermis. Shades of red colour, and the quantity and types of anthocyanins in skin, flesh, and seed extracts were correlated with differences in the expression of flavonoid 3′,5′-hydroxylases and anthocyanin genes encoding transcription factors, enzymatic proteins, and transporters. Fine adjustments in the global transcriptional modulation of the pathway occurred distinctively in each tissue, within four groups of co-expressed genes that were more associated with either the pericarp or the seed, and with either early or late-ripening stages. All structural genes controlling early steps of the flavonoid pathway exist in the grapevine genome in multiple copies that were recruited by antagonistic branches of the pathway in the 'Alicante Bouschet' berry. Expression patterns of individual paralogs were spatiotemporally distinct from one another, in step with either anthocyanin genes or proanthocyanidin genes. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.


di Gaspero G.,Instituto Of Genomica Applicata | di Gaspero G.,University of Udine | Cattonaro F.,Instituto Of Genomica Applicata
Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research | Year: 2010

Imagine a breeder browsing a grape chromosome nucleotide-by-nucleotide around a trait locus, scrolling down the list of catalogued genes along a genetic interval, resequencing for a few thousand dollars a potential parent or a selected breeding line. In the past couple of years, this vision has become a reality. The availability of the reference genome sequence has provided significant assistance in the saturation of loci with targeted genetic markers. Grape breeders are now offered unprecedented possibilities for selecting plants using deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequences within or near the gene that controls a desirable trait rather than handling their phenotypes. Genomics-assisted selection offers unique advantages in the correct choice of elite genotypes, in order to improve traits for which limitations of phenotyping technologies or low hereditability adversely affect the efficiency of phenotypic selection. DNA technologies enable the application of marker-assisted selection to thousands of grape seedlings every year, which was previously feasible only for cereals and annuals, enhancing the possibilities of finding an ideal recombinant in populations bred from highly heterozygous parents. The expected outcome is a renewal of the varietal choices available to viticulturists, with novel genotypes that meet the demand for disease-free vines and flavourful grapes. The depth of exploration and characterisation of the existing germplasm is crucial for translating natural diversity into new varieties that could perform beyond the fence of the experimental vineyards and gain substantial market share. We review here how current achievements in genomics and genome sequencing are expected to increase the efficiency of grapevine breeding programs. © 2009 Australian Society of Viticulture and Oenology Inc.


Nazzi F.,University of Udine | Brown S.P.,University of Edinburgh | Annoscia D.,University of Udine | Del Piccolo F.,University of Udine | And 6 more authors.
PLoS Pathogens | Year: 2012

The health of the honeybee and, indirectly, global crop production are threatened by several biotic and abiotic factors, which play a poorly defined role in the induction of widespread colony losses. Recent descriptive studies suggest that colony losses are often related to the interaction between pathogens and other stress factors, including parasites. Through an integrated analysis of the population and molecular changes associated with the collapse of honeybee colonies infested by the parasitic mite Varroa destructor, we show that this parasite can de-stabilise the within-host dynamics of Deformed wing virus (DWV), transforming a cryptic and vertically transmitted virus into a rapidly replicating killer, which attains lethal levels late in the season. The de-stabilisation of DWV infection is associated with an immunosuppression syndrome, characterized by a strong down-regulation of the transcription factor NF-κB. The centrality of NF-κB in host responses to a range of environmental challenges suggests that this transcription factor can act as a common currency underlying colony collapse that may be triggered by different causes. Our results offer an integrated account for the multifactorial origin of honeybee losses and a new framework for assessing, and possibly mitigating, the impact of environmental challenges on honeybee health. © 2012 Nazzi et al.


Patent
Instituto Of Genomica Applicata | Date: 2015-03-27

A new and distinct variety of grapevine, primarily suited to the growing conditions of the temperate regions, and characterized by its medium vigor; semi-erect growth habit; medium, pentagonal to circular shaped leaves; short-medium, dense, cylindrical berry clusters; dark blue berries with soft to slightly firm berry flesh, herbaceous taste, and no flesh coloration; and resistance to winter temperatures (to 24 C.), resistance to downy mildew, and tolerance to powdery mildew.


Patent
Instituto Of Genomica Applicata | Date: 2015-03-27

A new and distinct variety of grapevine named Petit Merlot, primarily adapted to the growing conditions of the temperate regions, and characterized by its medium vigor; erect growth habit; medium sized, circular shaped leaves; small, conical, medium dense berry clusters with two middle size wings; blue-black berries with slightly firm flesh, none to herbaceous taste and none to very weak flesh coloration; primary use for wine; and resistance to winter temperatures (to 22 C.), resistance to downy mildew, and tolerance to powdery mildew.


Patent
University of Udine and Instituto Of Genomica Applicata | Date: 2015-03-26

A new and distinct variety of grapevine named EARLY SAUVIGNON, primarily adapted to the growing conditions of the temperate regions, and characterized by its strong vigor; erect growth habit; wedge-shaped leaves with medium texture; medium weight and conical shaped berry clusters; early maturing, firm berry flesh with no coloration and neutral taste primarily for winemaking; early harvesting time; and resistance to winter temperatures (to 22 C.), resistance to downy mildew and tolerance to powdery mildew.


Patent
Instituto Of Genomica Applicata | Date: 2015-03-26

A new and distinct variety of grapevine named SAUVIGNON DOR, primarily adapted to the growing conditions of the temperate regions, and characterized by its medium vigor; semi-erect growth habit; wedge-shaped leaves with medium texture; small cylindrical shaped green-yellow berry clusters with a golden nuance on the sunny side of the berries; early maturing, soft berry flesh with no coloration and neutral taste primarily for winemaking; and resistance to winter temperatures (to 23 C.), resistance to downy mildew and tolerance to powdery mildew.


Patent
Instituto Of Genomica Applicata | Date: 2015-03-27

A new and distinct variety of grapevine plant, named FLEURTAI, primarily adapted to the growing conditions of the temperate regions and characterized by its strong vigor; erect growth habit; small to medium circular shaped leaves with medium texture; medium sized berry clusters with golden-green berries that have an amber nuance on the sunny side of the berry, soft flesh, neutral taste, and no flesh coloration primarily used for wine; early harvesting time; and resistance to winter temperatures (to 23 C.), resistance to downy mildew, and tolerance to powdery mildew.


Patent
Instituto Of Genomica Applicata | Date: 2015-03-27

A new and distinct variety of grapevine, primarily suited to the growing conditions of the temperate regions, and characterized by its medium-strong vigor; horizontal growth habit; medium-sized, wedge-shaped to circular-shaped leaves; very low to low weight berry clusters; berries with slightly firm flesh, neutral taste, and no flesh coloration; primarily used for wine; and resistance to winter temperatures (to 24 C.), resistance to downy mildew, and tolerance to powdery mildew.

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